author = "Berenguer, Erika and Ferreira, Joice and Gardner, Toby Alan and 
                         Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de and Camargo, 
                         Pl{\'{\i}}nio Barbosa De and Cerri, Carlos Eduardo and Durigan, 
                         Mariana and Oliveira Junior, Raimundo Cosme De and Vieira, Ima 
                         C{\'e}lia Guimar{\~a}es and Barlow, Jos",
          affiliation = "{Lancaster University} and {Embrapa Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and 
                         {University of Cambridge} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Embrapa Amaz{\^o}nia Oriental} and 
                         {Museu Paraense Em{\'{\i}}lio Goeldi} and {Lancaster 
                title = "A large\‐scale field assessment of carbon stocks in 
                         human\‐modified tropical forests",
              journal = "Global Change Biology",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "20",
               number = "12",
                pages = "3713--3726",
             keywords = "Amazon, biomass, forest degradation, logging, REDD+, secondary 
                         forests, soil, vegetation, wildfires.",
             abstract = "Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the 
                         protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to 
                         mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest 
                         conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions 
                         focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from 
                         deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid 
                         tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and 
                         habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the 
                         effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in 
                         disturbed forests compare to those found in undisturbed primary 
                         forests as well as in regenerating secondary forests. Here, we 
                         present the results of the largest field study to date on the 
                         impacts of human disturbances on above and belowground carbon 
                         stocks in tropical forests. Live vegetation, the largest carbon 
                         pool, was extremely sensitive to disturbance: forests that 
                         experienced both selective logging and understory fires stored, on 
                         average, 40% less aboveground carbon than undisturbed forests and 
                         were structurally similar to secondary forests. Edge effects also 
                         played an important role in explaining variability in aboveground 
                         carbon stocks of disturbed forests. Results indicate a potential 
                         rapid recovery of the dead wood and litter carbon pools, while 
                         soil stocks (030 cm) appeared to be resistant to the effects of 
                         logging and fire. Carbon loss and subsequent emissions due to 
                         human disturbances remain largely unaccounted for in greenhouse 
                         gas inventories, but by comparing our estimates of depleted carbon 
                         stocks in disturbed forests with Brazilian government assessments 
                         of the total forest area annually disturbed in the Amazon, we show 
                         that these emissions could represent up to 40% of the carbon loss 
                         from deforestation in the region. We conclude that conservation 
                         programs aiming to ensure the long-term permanence of forest 
                         carbon stocks, such as REDD+, will remain limited in their success 
                         unless they effectively avoid degradation as well as 
                  doi = "10.1111/gcb.12627",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12627",
                 issn = "1354-1013",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "gcb12627.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 jan. 2021"