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@PhDThesis{Soares:2014:VaClIn,
               author = "Soares, Helena Cachanhuk",
                title = "Variabilidade clim{\'a}tica interanual local e remota do 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico Sul sobre os Grandes Ecossistemas Marinhos 
                         brasileiros",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2014",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2014-11-14",
             keywords = "variabilidade clim{\'a}tica interanual, modos locais e remotos de 
                         variabilidade clim{\'a}tica, dados de sat{\'e}lite aplicados a 
                         valida{\c{c}}{\~a}o de modelos num{\'e}ricos, grandes 
                         ecossistemas marinhos, Atl{\^a}ntico Sul, interannual climate 
                         variability, local and remote modes of climate variability, 
                         satellite data for validation of numerical models, large marine 
                         ecosystems, South Atlantic.",
             abstract = "As influ{\^e}ncias dos modos remotos e locais de variabilidade 
                         clim{\'a}tica sobre as caracter{\'{\i}}sticas oce{\^a}nicas e 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricas do Atl{\^a}ntico Sul foram avaliadas neste 
                         trabalho e as an{\'a}lises permitiram identificar os impactos 
                         destas varia{\c{c}}{\~o}es sobre os Grandes Ecossistemas 
                         Marinhos (GEM) brasileiros. Os modos remotos considerados foram o 
                         El Niņo Oscila{\c{c}}{\~a}o Sul (ENOS) e a Oscila{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         Decenal do Pac{\'{\i}}fico (ODP). Os modos locais s{\~a}o o 
                         modo tropical do Atl{\^a}ntico Norte (TNA), o modo tropical do 
                         Atl{\^a}ntico Sul (TSA) e a Oscila{\c{c}}{\~a}o Ant{\'a}rtica 
                         (AAO). A primeira an{\'a}lise foi fundamentada em an{\'a}lise de 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es total e parcial entre os {\'{\i}}ndices 
                         clim{\'a}ticos, como o Niņo3, TSA, TNA e AAO e as vari{\'a}veis 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricas e oce{\^a}nicas sobre o Atl{\^a}ntico Sul, 
                         como a temperatura da superf{\'{\i}}cie do mar (TSM), 
                         tens{\~a}o do vento {\`a} superf{\'{\i}}cie do mar, transporte 
                         de Ekman, radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de onda longa emergente e 
                         press{\~a}o ao n{\'{\i}}vel do mar. Todas as vari{\'a}veis e 
                         {\'{\i}}ndices clim{\'a}ticos foram filtrados na escala 
                         interanual. O impacto da mudan{\c{c}}a de regime da ODP 
                         (1976/1977) foi avaliado atrav{\'e}s de diferen{\c{c}}as de 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es durante as fases quente e fria da ODP. 
                         Ap{\'o}s a identifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos modos de variabilidade 
                         mais influentes foi realizada uma simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         num{\'e}rica entre 1980 e 2007 utilizando o modelo regional de 
                         circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o oce{\^a}nica ROMS. Com os resultados desta 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi poss{\'{\i}}vel avaliar a 
                         evolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o das caracter{\'{\i}}sticas oce{\^a}nicas 
                         durante os eventos ENOS que ocorreram na fase quente da ODP. A 
                         valida{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos resultados do modelo foi efetuada com 
                         base na compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o com dados de sat{\'e}lites, para 
                         isto foi empregada a TSM do sensor radi{\^o}metro AVHRR a bordo 
                         dos sat{\'e}lites NOAA, as velocidades de correntes 
                         geostr{\'o}ficas e altura do n{\'{\i}}vel do mar provenientes 
                         de dados altim{\'e}tricos do AVISO. Com a an{\'a}lise de 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es verificou-se que o GEM do Sul do Brasil 
                         {\'e} fortemente influenciado pelas rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         termodin{\^a}micas envolvidas nas intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre 
                         oceano e atmosfera no Atl{\^a}ntico Sudoeste. Estas 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es s{\~a}o fortemente impactadas pela 
                         mudan{\c{c}}a de fase da ODP. Com as correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         parciais foi identificado que o TSA reduz a influ{\^e}ncia do 
                         ENOS sobre as anomalias de TSM (ATSM) durante o per{\'{\i}}odo 
                         quente da ODP (1977-2008) nos GEMs do Norte e Leste do Brasil e no 
                         GEM da corrente da Guin{\'e}. O TSA tamb{\'e}m intensifica os 
                         padr{\~o}es de correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre o AAO e as ATSM na 
                         regi{\~a}o tropical. No GEM do Sul do Brasil foram encontradas 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es negativas entre o AAO e as ATSM e este 
                         padr{\~a}o foi persistente mesmo com a remo{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos 
                         outros {\'{\i}}ndices. Com a correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre os 
                         {\'{\i}}ndices clim{\'a}ticos Niņo3, TSA e AAO e as ATSM do 
                         ROMS foi poss{\'{\i}}vel verificar que o modelo {\'e} capaz de 
                         reproduzir as principais rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es clim{\'a}ticas que 
                         explicam a variabilidade das ATSM no oceano Atl{\^a}ntico Sul. 
                         Esta pesquisa evidencia a complexidade das intera{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         entre os modos locais e remotos de variabilidade clim{\'a}tica no 
                         oceano Atl{\^a}ntico Sul e mostra a import{\^a}ncia de 
                         consider{\'a}-las ao empregar os GEMs para a gest{\~a}o dos 
                         recursos marinhos do Brasil. ABSTRACT: The remote and local 
                         climate variability influences on the oceanic and atmospheric 
                         South Atlantic characteristics were evaluated and the analysis 
                         allowed to identify the impacts of these variations on the 
                         Brazilian Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). The El Niņo Southern 
                         Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) are 
                         the remote climate modes. The local variability is represented by 
                         the Tropical North Atlantic (TNA), the Tropical South Atlantic 
                         (TSA) and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). The initial analysis 
                         was based on total and partial correlation between climate indices 
                         representing these modes as Niņo3, TSA, TNA and AAO and oceanic 
                         and atmospheric variables on the South Atlantic ocean, as sea 
                         surface temperature (SST), wind stress, Ekman transport, outgoing 
                         longwave radiation and sea level pressure. All the variables were 
                         filtered on the interannual scale. The impact of the PDO regime 
                         shift (1976/1977) was assessed by the differences between the 
                         correlations during the cold and warm PDO phases. After 
                         identifying the most influential modes of variability, a numerical 
                         simulation was carried out between 1980 to 2007, using the 
                         regional ocean circulation model ROMS. With the results of this 
                         simulation it was possible to evaluate the evolution of oceanic 
                         characteristics during the ENSO events that occurred in the warm 
                         PDO phase. The validation of the model results was performed based 
                         on comparison with satellite data, for this the SST from the AVHRR 
                         radiometer aboard the NOAA satellites, geostrophic currents 
                         velocities and sea level height based on altimetry data from the 
                         AVISO were used. With the correlation analysis it was found that 
                         the South Brazil LME is strongly influenced by the thermodynamic 
                         relations involved in the ocean atmosphere interactions in the 
                         southwest of South Atlantic Ocean. These relationships are 
                         strongly affected by the PDO regime shift. With the partial 
                         correlations it was identified that TSA reduces the influence of 
                         ENSO on the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) during the 
                         warm PDO period (1977-2008) in the North and East Brazil LMEs and 
                         in the Guinea current LME. The TSA also intensifies the patterns 
                         of correlations between AAO and the SSTA in the tropical region. 
                         In the South Brazil LME were found negative correlations between 
                         the AAO and the SSTA and this pattern was persistent, even with 
                         the removal of the other indices. With the correlation between the 
                         climate indices Niņo3, TSA and AAO and the SSTA produced by ROMS 
                         was possible to verify that the model is able to reproduce the 
                         main climate relationships that explain the variability of SSTA in 
                         the South Atlantic Ocean. This research highlights the complexity 
                         of the interactions between local and remote climate modes on the 
                         South Atlantic ocean and shows the importance of considering them 
                         to use the LME for the management of Brazilian marine areas.",
            committee = "Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino (presidente/orientador) and 
                         Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi (orientador) and Kayano, Mary Toshie and 
                         Justino, Fl{\'a}vio Barbosa and Camargo, Ricardo de",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Local and remote interannual climate variability of the South 
                         Atlantic on the Brazilian Large Marine Ecosystems",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "148",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP5W34M/3H9CNL5",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP5W34M/3H9CNL5",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"
}


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