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@Article{CoronadoCAMCCGQVSSN:2014:FlLiHy,
               author = "Coronado, C. J. R. and Carvalho Jr., J. A. and Andrade, Jos{\'e} 
                         Carlos de and Mendiburu, A. Z. and Cortez, Ely Vieira and 
                         Carvalho, F. S. and Gon{\c{c}}alves, B. and Quintero, J. C. and 
                         Vel{\'a}squez, E. I. G. and Silva, M. H. and Santos, Jos{\'e} 
                         Carlos dos and Nascimento, M. A. R.",
          affiliation = "Federal University of Itajub{\'a}, UNIFEI, Mechanical Engineering 
                         Institute, IEM Av. BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, MG, CEP 37500-903, 
                         Brazil and S{\~a}o Paulo State University-UNESP, Campus of 
                         Guaratingueta-FEG Av. Ariberto P. da Cunha, 333, 
                         Guaratinguet{\'a}, SP, CEP 12516-410, Brazil and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and S{\~a}o Paulo State 
                         University-UNESP, Campus of Guaratingueta-FEG Av. Ariberto P. da 
                         Cunha, 333, Guaratinguet{\'a}, SP, CEP 12516-410, Brazil and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Federal 
                         University of Itajub{\'a}, UNIFEI, Mechanical Engineering 
                         Institute, IEM Av. BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, MG, CEP 37500-903, 
                         Brazil and Federal University of Itajub{\'a}, UNIFEI, Mechanical 
                         Engineering Institute, IEM Av. BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, MG, CEP 
                         37500-903, Brazil and Federal University of Itajub{\'a}, UNIFEI, 
                         Mechanical Engineering Institute, IEM Av. BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, 
                         MG, CEP 37500-903, Brazil and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 
                         Universidad Antonio Nariño, Tunja, Colombia and Federal University 
                         of Itajub{\'a}, UNIFEI, Mechanical Engineering Institute, IEM Av. 
                         BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, MG, CEP 37500-903, Brazil and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Federal University of 
                         Itajub{\'a}, UNIFEI, Mechanical Engineering Institute, IEM Av. 
                         BPS 1303, Itajub{\'a}, MG, CEP 37500-903, Brazil",
                title = "Flammability limits of hydrated and anhydrous ethanol at reduced 
                         pressures in aeronautical applications",
              journal = "Journal of Hazardous Materials",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "280",
                pages = "174--184",
             keywords = "Atmospheric pressure, Civil aviation, Experiments, Flammability, 
                         Heat treating furnaces, Hydration, Aeronautical applications, 
                         Anhydrous ethanol, Flammability limits, Pressure and temperature, 
                         Scientific literature, Temperature range, Upper flammability 
                         limits, Visual criterion, Reduced pressure, Ethanol, Ethanol, 
                         alcohol, anhydrous ethanol, hydrated ethanol, unclassified drug, 
                         data set, ethanol, hydration, pressure effect, temperature effect, 
                         water content, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, biofuel, 
                         aeronautical application, altitude, article, atmospheric pressure, 
                         aviation, blood vessel wall, camera, flammability, heating, 
                         photography, pressure transducer, scientific literature, space and 
                         space related phenomena, temperature, water content, water vapor, 
                         Article, controlled study, flame, microgravity.",
             abstract = "There is interest in finding the flammability limits of ethanol at 
                         reduced pressures for the future use of this biofuel in 
                         aeronautical applications taking into account typical commercial 
                         aviation altitude (<40,000. ft). The lower and upper flammability 
                         limits (LFL and UFL, respectively) for hydrated ethanol and 
                         anhydrous ethanol (92.6% and 99.5% p/p, respectively) were 
                         determined for a pressure of 101.3. kPa at temperatures between 0 
                         and 200. °C. A heating chamber with a spherical 20-l vessel was 
                         used. First, LFL and the UFL were determined as functions of 
                         temperature and atmospheric pressure to compare results with data 
                         published in the scientific literature. Second, after checking the 
                         veracity of the data obtained for standard atmospheric pressure, 
                         the work proceeded with reduced pressures in the same temperature 
                         range. 295 experiments were carried out in total; the first 80 
                         were to calibrate the heating chamber and compare the results with 
                         those given in the published scientific literature. 215 
                         experiments were performed both at atmospheric and reduced 
                         pressures. The results had a correlation with the values obtained 
                         for the LFL, but values for the UFL had some differences. With 
                         respect to the water content in ethanol, it was shown that the 
                         water vapor contained in the fuel can act as an inert substance, 
                         narrowing flammability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.063",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.063",
                 issn = "0304-3894",
                label = "scopus 2014-11 CoronadoCAMCCGQVSSN:2014:FlLiHy",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Flammability limits.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"
}


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