author = "Carpi, A. and Fostier, A. H. and Orta, O. R. and Santos, Jos{\'e} 
                         Carlos dos and Gittings, M.",
          affiliation = "{John Jay College} and {Universidade Estadual de Campinas 
                         (UNICAMP)} and {John Jay College} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {John Jay College}",
                title = "Gaseous mercury emissions from soil following forest loss and land 
                         use changes: Field experiments in the United States and Brazil",
              journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "96",
                pages = "423--429",
             keywords = "Deforestation, Experiments, Land use, Mercury (metal), Soils, 
                         Amazon, Atmospheric mercury, Brazil, Deciduous forest, Forest 
                         fires, Land-use change, Large scale experiments, Long-term 
                         release, Soil surveys, gaseous mercury, mercury, politef, 
                         unclassified drug, estimation method, forest fire, forest soil, 
                         gas flow, land use change, mercury (element), soil emission, 
                         article, atmosphere, Brazil, canopy, deforestation, environmental 
                         monitoring, environmental temperature, field experiment, fire, 
                         forest soil, land use, light, priority journal, soil analysis, 
                         United States, Brazil, Deforestation, Forest Fires, Land Use, 
                         Mercury, Soil, Brazil, United States.",
             abstract = "Forest ecosystems are a sink of atmospheric mercury, trapping the 
                         metal in the canopy, and storing it in the forest floor after 
                         litter fall. Fire liberates a portion of this mercury; however, 
                         little is known about the long-term release of mercury post 
                         deforestation. We conducted two large-scale experiments to study 
                         this phenomenon. In upstate New York, gaseous mercury emissions 
                         from soil were monitored continually using a Teflon dynamic 
                         surface flux chamber for two-weeks before and after cutting of the 
                         canopy on the edge of a deciduous forest. In Brazil, gaseous 
                         mercury emissions from soil were monitored in an intact 
                         Ombrophilous Open forest and an adjacent field site both before 
                         and after the field site was cleared by burning. In the intact 
                         forest, gaseous mercury emissions from soil 
                         averaged-0.731.84ngm-2h-1 (24-h monitoring) at the New York site, 
                         and 0.330.09ngm-2h-1 (daytime-only) at the Brazil site. After 
                         deforestation, gaseous mercury emissions from soil averaged 
                         9.132.08ngm-2h-1 in New York and 21.20.35ngm-2h-1 at the Brazil 
                         site prior to burning. Gaseous mercury emissions averaged 
                         74.90.73ngm-2h-1 after burning of the cut forest in Brazil. 
                         Extrapolating our data, measured over several weeks to months, to 
                         a full year period, deforested soil is estimated to release an 
                         additional 2.30gha-1yr-1 of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere in 
                         the Brazilian experiment and 0.41gha-1yr-1 in the New York 
                         experiment. In Brazil, this represents an additional 50% of the 
                         mercury load released during the fire itself.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.004",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.004",
                 issn = "1352-2310",
                label = "scopus 2014-11 CarpiFosOrtSanGit:2014:FiExUn",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"