author = "Fernandes, Bruno Bacci and Mandl, S. and Oliveira, Rogerio de 
                         Moraes and Ueda, Mario",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Leibniz 
                         Inst Oberflachenmodifizierung} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Mechanical properties of nitrogen-rich surface layers on SS304 
                         treated by plasma immersion ion implantation",
              journal = "Applied Surface Science",
                 year = "2014",
               volume = "310",
               number = "SI",
                pages = "278--283",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "Stainless steel, Plasma immersion ion implantation, Tribological 
                         properties, Hardness.",
             abstract = "The formation of hard and wear resistant surface regions for 
                         austenitic stainless steel through different nitriding and 
                         nitrogen implantation processes at intermediate temperatures is an 
                         established technology. As the inserted nitrogen remains in solid 
                         solution, an expanded austenite phase is formed, accounting for 
                         these surface improvements. However, experiments on long-term 
                         behavior and exact wear processes within the expanded austenite 
                         layer are still missing. Here, the modified layers were produced 
                         using plasma immersion ion implantation with nitrogen gas and had 
                         a thickness of up to 4 pm, depending on the processing 
                         temperature. Thicker layers or those with higher surface nitrogen 
                         contents presented better wear resistance, according to detailed 
                         microscopic investigation on abrasion, plastic deformation, 
                         cracking and redeposition of material inside the wear tracks. At 
                         the same time, cyclic fatigue testing employing a nanoindenter 
                         equipped with a diamond ball was carried out at different absolute 
                         loads and relative unloadings. As the stress distribution between 
                         the modified layer and the substrate changes with increasing load, 
                         additional simulations were performed for obtaining these complex 
                         stress distributions. While high nitrogen concentration and/or 
                         thicker layers improve the wear resistance and hardness, these 
                         modifications simultaneously reduce the surface fatigue 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.04.142",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.04.142",
                 issn = "0169-4332",
                label = "isi 2014-11 FernandesMandOlivUeda:2014:MePrNi",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Fernandes_Mechanical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "22 jan. 2021"