author = "Guedes, M{\'a}rcia Regina Guimar{\~a}es and Pereira, Eduardo dos 
                         Santos and Cecatto, Jos{\'e} Roberto",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Wavelet analysis of CME, X-ray flare, and sunspot series",
              journal = "Astronomy \& Astrophysics",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "573",
               number = "A64",
                pages = "10pp",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "coronal mass ejections, data analysis.",
             abstract = "Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are the 
                         most energetic transient phenomena taking place at the Sun. 
                         Together they are principally responsible for disturbances in 
                         outer geospace. Coronal mass ejections and solar flares are 
                         believed to be correlated with the solar cycle, which is mainly 
                         characterized by sunspot numbers. Aims. Here, we search for 
                         pattern identification in CMEs, X-ray solar flares, and sunspot 
                         number time series using a new data mining process and a 
                         quantitative procedure to correlate these series. Methods. This 
                         new process consists of the combination of a decomposition method 
                         with the wavelet transform technique applied to the series ranging 
                         from 2000 until 2012. A simple moving average is used for the 
                         time-series decomposition as a high-pass filter. A continuous 
                         wavelet transform is applied to the series in sequence, which 
                         permits us to uncover signals previously masked by the original 
                         time series. We made use of the wavelet coherence to find some 
                         correlation between the data. Results. The results have shown the 
                         existence of periodic and intermittent signals in the CMEs, 
                         flares, and sunspot time series. For the CME and flare series, few 
                         and relatively short time intervals without any signal were 
                         observed. Signals with an intermittent character take place during 
                         some epochs of the maximum and descending phases of the solar 
                         cycle 23 and rising phase of solar cycle 24. A comparison among 
                         X-ray flares, sunspots, and CME time series shows a stronger 
                         relation between flare and CMEs, although during some short 
                         intervals (four eight months) and in a relatively narrow band. 
                         Yet, in contrast we have obtained a fainter or even absent 
                         relation between the X-ray flares and sunspot number series as 
                         well as between the CMEs and sunspot number series.",
                  doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201323080",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201323080",
                 issn = "0004-6361 and 1432-0746",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "aa23080-13_proof.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"