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@MastersThesis{Diniz:2015:EsReTi,
               author = "Diniz, Carlos Eduardo",
                title = "Estudo de revestimentos de TiN em substratos de a{\c{c}}o 15-5 PH 
                         com interfaces dilu{\'{\i}}das para aplica{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         aeroespaciais",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-02-27",
             keywords = "nitreto de tit{\^a}nio, EB-PVD, nitreta{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         interfaces dilu{\'{\i}}das, nanoindenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o, titanium 
                         nitride, EB-PVD, nitriding, diluted interfaces, nanoindentation.",
             abstract = "Neste trabalho foi proposta uma combina{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         t{\'e}cnicas convencionais para a obten{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         revestimento aderente de nitreto de tit{\^a}nio (TiN) em 
                         a{\c{c}}o. A investiga{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi realizada em filmes de 
                         TiN com espessuras da ordem de 200 nm depositados em 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cies de substratos de a{\c{c}}o aeron{\'a}utico 
                         inoxid{\'a}vel 15-5 PH. Este a{\c{c}}o {\'e} utilizado na 
                         ind{\'u}stria aeron{\'a}utica para fabrica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         pe{\c{c}}as de trem de pouso de aeronaves, sujeitas ao atrito 
                         superficial. Para aumentar a ader{\^e}ncia destes filmes, neste 
                         trabalho foi proposta a obten{\c{c}}{\~a}o de interfaces 
                         dilu{\'{\i}}das pela forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es s{\'o}lidas em processo termicamente 
                         ativado. Nestas interfaces as propriedades variam gradativamente 
                         do filme at{\'e} o substrato, resultando no aumento da 
                         ader{\^e}ncia deste tipo de revestimento. Para a 
                         obten{\c{c}}{\~a}o deste tipo de revestimento de TiN, os filmes 
                         de tit{\^a}nio met{\'a}lico foram depositados nas 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cies de substratos de a{\c{c}}o 15-5 PH, 
                         atrav{\'e}s da t{\'e}cnica EB-PVD (\emph{Electron Beam Physical 
                         Vapor Deposition}), e posteriormente submetidos a tratamentos 
                         t{\'e}rmicos de nitreta{\c{c}}{\~a}o em atmosfera gasosa 
                         contendo 95 \% de nitrog{\^e}nio gasoso e 5 \% de arg{\^o}nio. 
                         Os tratamentos t{\'e}rmicos foram realizados em 3 temperaturas 
                         (500, 600 e 700 \$^{}\$C) e em 3 tempos (5, 10 e 15 minutos). 
                         As amostras obtidas foram caracterizadas por MEV (Microscopia 
                         Eletr{\^o}nica de Varredura), DRX (Difratometria de Raios X), AFM 
                         (\emph{Atomic Force Microscopy} - Microscopia de For{\c{c}}a 
                         At{\^o}mica), EDX (Espectroscopia por Energia Dispersiva de Raios 
                         X) e por nanoindenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o. As an{\'a}lises por EDX das 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cies do substrato forneceram uma 
                         composi{\c{c}}{\~a}o qu{\'{\i}}mica coerente com a fornecida 
                         pelo fabricante e confirmou a presen{\c{c}}a do filme de 
                         tit{\^a}nio met{\'a}lico. As an{\'a}lises da sec{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         transversal das amostras do filme de Ti - substrato de a{\c{c}}o 
                         indicaram a forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de interface dilu{\'{\i}}da, 
                         composta por solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o s{\'o}lida de Ti e componentes 
                         qu{\'{\i}}micos do substrato. As imagens obtidas por AFM das 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cies dos substratos mostraram a presen{\c{c}}a de 
                         poros e riscos pouco profundos. As an{\'a}lises das 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cies por difratometria de raios X, ap{\'o}s 
                         tratamentos t{\'e}rmicos indicaram a presen{\c{c}}a de TiN. As 
                         imagens das superf{\'{\i}}cies dos filmes obtidas por AFM 
                         indicaram o aumento da rugosidade superficial com o aumento da 
                         temperatura de tratamento t{\'e}rmico. As an{\'a}lises dos dados 
                         obtidos por nanoindenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o e microdureza indicaram a 
                         possibilidade de forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 3 regi{\~o}es com 
                         propriedades de dureza e m{\'o}dulo de elasticidade distintos. 
                         Baseando-se nestes resultados foi proposta a 
                         modifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o da superf{\'{\i}}cie com a 
                         forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 3 camadas, sendo: i) uma camada 
                         superficial de nitreto de tit{\^a}nio, ii) uma interface 
                         dilu{\'{\i}}da entre o filme de TiN e substrato de a{\c{c}}o 
                         composta por uma solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o s{\'o}lida de TiN, N, Ti, Fe 
                         e Cr e iii) o substrato de a{\c{c}}o 15-5 PH. Portanto, estes 
                         resultados indicam que as t{\'e}cnicas utilizadas neste trabalho 
                         permitiram a obten{\c{c}}{\~a}o de uma interface 
                         dilu{\'{\i}}da entre o filme de TiN e o substrato de a{\c{c}}o, 
                         atingindo o objetivo principal proposto. ABSTRACT: In this work, a 
                         combination of conventional techniques for the obtainment of an 
                         adherent titanium nitride (TiN) coating in steel was proposed. The 
                         investigation was carried out in TiN films with thicknesses of 
                         about 200 nm deposited in 15-5 PH aeronautical stainless steel 
                         substrate surfaces. This steel is used in the aeronautical 
                         industries for the manufacturing of airplanes landing gears parts, 
                         subjected to surface friction. In order to improve the adherence 
                         of such films, it was proposed the obtainment of diluted 
                         interfaces by solid solutions formed in thermally activated 
                         processes. In this kind of interfaces the properties vary 
                         gradually from the film to the substrate resulting in adherence 
                         improvement. For the obtainment of this type of TiN coating, the 
                         metallic titanium films were deposited on the substrate surface 
                         through the EB-PVD (Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition) 
                         technique, and later thermally treated in gaseous atmosphere 
                         containing 95\% Nitrogen and 5\% Argon. The thermal treatments 
                         were carried out in 3 temperatures (500, 600 and 700 \$^{}\$C) 
                         and for 3 different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes). The specimens 
                         obtained were characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), 
                         XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), EDX 
                         (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry) and by nanoindentation. The 
                         substrate EDX analysis showed a chemical composition coherent with 
                         the composition provided by the supplier and confirmed the 
                         presence of metallic titanium. The transversal section analysis of 
                         the film-substrate interface indicated the formation of a diluted 
                         interface composed of a solid solution of Ti and chemical elements 
                         from the substrate. The substrate AFM images showed the presence 
                         of pores and scratches not deep. The XRD surface analysis after 
                         thermal treatment indicated the presence of TiN. The film surface 
                         AFM images indicated a roughness rise with the rise of the thermal 
                         treatment temperature. The nanoindentation and microindentation 
                         data analysis indicated the possible formation of 3 regions with 
                         different hardnesses and elasticity modulus. Based on those 
                         results, a surface modification with the formation of 3 layers was 
                         proposed, being i) A superficial TiN layer, ii) A diluted 
                         interface between the TiN film and the steel substrate composed of 
                         a solid solution of TiN, N, Ti, Fe and Cr, and iii) The 15-5 PH 
                         steel substrate. Therefore the results indicate that the 
                         techniques used in this work allowed the obtainment of a diluted 
                         interface between the TiN film and the steel substrate, achieving 
                         the main objective proposed.",
            committee = "Nono, Maria do Carmo de Andrade (presidente/orientadora) and An, 
                         Chen Ying and Melo, Francisco Crist{\'o}v{\~a}o Louren{\c{c}}o 
                         de",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Study of TiN coatings in 15-5 PH steel with diluted interfaces for 
                         aerospacial applications",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "101",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3HTEBG8",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3HTEBG8",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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