author = "Bela, M. M. and Freitas, Karla Maria Longo de and Freitas, Saulo 
                         Ribeiro de and Moreira, Demerval Soares and Beck, V. and Wofsy, S. 
                         C. and Gerbig, C. and Wiedemann, K. and Andreae, M. O. and Artaxo, 
          affiliation = "{University of Colorado} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry} and {Harvard 
                         University} and {Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry} and 
                         {Harvard University} and {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)}",
                title = "Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the 
                         dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "15",
                pages = "757782",
             abstract = "The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA) campaign provided 
                         the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of ozone (O3) 
                         during both the dry-towet (November and December 2008) and 
                         wet-to-dry (May 2009) transition seasons. Extremely low background 
                         values (< 20 ppb) were observed to the west and north of Manaus in 
                         both seasons and in all regions during the wet-to-dry transition. 
                         On the other hand, elevated O3 levels (4060 ppb) were seen during 
                         the dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where 
                         biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry 
                         simulations with the CCATTBRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within the 
                         error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer (03 
                         km a.s.l.) in polluted conditions. However, the models 
                         overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite 
                         lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 
                         simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower 
                         than BARCA observations in mid-levels (35 km a.s.l.), and lower 
                         than total tropospheric O3 retrieved from the OMI/MLS instruments, 
                         which is primarily comprised of middle troposphere O3 and thus 
                         reflects long-range transport processes. Therefore, the models do 
                         a relatively poor job of representing the free 
                         troposphere-boundary layer gradient in O3 compared with aircraft 
                         and satellite observations, which could be due to missing 
                         long-range and convective transport of O3 at mid-levels. 
                         Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed that the model O3 
                         production is very sensitive to both the O3 deposition velocities 
                         and the NOx emissions, which were both about one-half of observed 
                         values. These results indicate the necessity of more realistic 
                         model representations of emissions, deposition, and convective 
                         processes for accurate monitoring and prediction of increases in 
                         O3 production in the Amazon Basin as the regional population 
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-15-757-2015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-757-2015",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Bela_Ozone production.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "19 jan. 2021"