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@MastersThesis{Teles:2015:ReMéFe,
               author = "Teles, Thiago Sousa",
                title = "Rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es de m{\'e}tricas fenol{\'o}gicas EVI/MODIS 
                         do TIMESAT com sombreamento e padr{\~o}es at{\'{\i}}picos de 
                         temperatura em floresta estacional decidual",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-03-24",
             keywords = "fenologia por sat{\'e}lite, efeitos topogr{\'a}ficos, 
                         temperatura, TIMESAT, varia{\c{c}}{\~o}es clim{\'a}ticas, 
                         satellite phenology, topographic effects, temperature, climate 
                         change.",
             abstract = "O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar poss{\'{\i}}veis 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es de m{\'e}tricas fenol{\'o}gicas 
                         extra{\'{\i}}das pelo algoritmo TIMESAT com o sombreamento 
                         resultante das varia{\c{c}}{\~o}es sazonais no {\^A}ngulo 
                         Zenital Solar (AZS) e dos efeitos topogr{\'a}ficos locais e com 
                         padr{\~o}es at{\'{\i}}picos de temperatura observados na 
                         Floresta Estacional Decidual do Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET), 
                         localizado na regi{\~a}o sul do Brasil. De forma mais 
                         espec{\'{\i}}fica, procurou-se: (1) caracterizar 
                         fision{\^o}mico-estruturalmente a vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         {\'a}rea de estudo; (2) extrair m{\'e}tricas fenol{\'o}gicas 
                         aplicando o TIMESAT ao produto \emph{Enhanced Vegetation Index} 
                         (EVI) do sensor \emph{Moderate Resolution Imaging 
                         Spectroradiometer} (MODIS/Terra) e analisar sua variabilidade 
                         sazonal; (3) correlacionar as m{\'e}tricas fenol{\'o}gicas com 
                         as fra{\c{c}}{\~o}es sombra de um Modelo Linear de Mistura 
                         Espectral (MLME) e com os valores da imagem relevo sombreado 
                         (\emph{cos i}) obtida de modelagem topogr{\'a}fica; (4) 
                         identificar padr{\~o}es at{\'{\i}}picos de temperatura entre 
                         2002 e 2012 por meio de an{\'a}lise de ondeletas de dados de 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o meteorol{\'o}gica; e (5) analisar a 
                         influ{\^e}ncia local de padr{\~o}es an{\^o}malos de temperatura 
                         sobre a varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o interanual das m{\'e}tricas 
                         fenol{\'o}gicas. Os resultados mostraram que a 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o anual de EVI no PET apresentou valores 
                         m{\'a}ximos e m{\'{\i}}nimos associados {\`a} 
                         diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o do {\'{\I}}ndice de {\'A}rea Foliar 
                         (IAF) e ao aumento do AZS (sombreamento dos doss{\'e}is e efeitos 
                         topogr{\'a}ficos) do ver{\~a}o para o inverno. A 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o do IAF {\'e} resultado da deciduidade das 
                         esp{\'e}cies caducif{\'o}lias do estrato superior em resposta ao 
                         fotoper{\'{\i}}odo e a temperatura, onde a perda de folhas 
                         estaria associada {\`a} seca fisiol{\'o}gica durante o inverno. 
                         As m{\'e}tricas fenol{\'o}gicas, extra{\'{\i}}das pelo 
                         TIMESAT, atreladas a periodicidade dos eventos (In{\'{\i}}cio, 
                         Final, Dura{\c{c}}{\~a}o e Data Central do Ciclo Sazonal), 
                         n{\~a}o tiveram correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es significativas com a 
                         fra{\c{c}}{\~a}o sombra do MLME ou com a imagem relevo sombreado 
                         (\emph{cos i}). Por outro lado, as m{\'e}tricas mais diretamente 
                         relacionadas com os valores absolutos de EVI (N{\'{\i}}vel de 
                         Base, Valor M{\'a}ximo, Amplitude Sazonal, Derivadas da Borda 
                         Esquerda e Direita, Integral Maior e Menor) apresentaram 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es com o sombreamento. O espectro de 
                         ondeletas identificou dois per{\'{\i}}odos de maior 
                         pot{\^e}ncia no sinal relacionados {\`a}s varia{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         sazonais dos anos 2006/07 e 2009/10 e um de menor pot{\^e}ncia em 
                         2003/04. As maiores pot{\^e}ncias compreenderam as 
                         diferen{\c{c}}as de amplitude entre as elevadas temperaturas de 
                         ver{\~a}o dos ciclos 2006/07 e 2009/10 e as baixas temperaturas 
                         de inverno em 2007 e 2009. As baixas temperaturas do ver{\~a}o em 
                         2003/04 foram detectadas pelas ondeletas como um per{\'{\i}}odo 
                         de menor pot{\^e}ncia da s{\'e}rie temporal. As temperaturas 
                         mais elevadas dos ciclos de 2006/07 e 2009/10 est{\~a}o 
                         possivelmente associadas aos eventos de El 
                         Niño-Oscila{\c{c}}{\~a}o Sul (ENOS). Ao serem verificadas 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es entre temperatura e a varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         interanual das m{\'e}tricas fenol{\'o}gicas dos ciclos sazonais 
                         entre 2002 e 2012, verificou-se que: os valores absolutos de EVI 
                         M{\'{\i}}nimo para o m{\^e}s julho (inverno) foram 
                         estatisticamente correlacionados (r = +0,77) com a m{\'e}dia das 
                         temperaturas dos meses de junho e julho, sendo 2007 e 2009 os anos 
                         que apresentaram os mais baixos valores da s{\'e}rie; as 
                         m{\'e}tricas Final do Ciclo Sazonal, Dura{\c{c}}{\~a}o do Ciclo 
                         Sazonal, Integral Maior e Integral Menor apresentaram 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es positivas e estatisticamente significantes 
                         com a varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o interanual das temperaturas 
                         m{\'{\i}}nimas e m{\'e}dias para diferentes per{\'{\i}}odos. 
                         Estas m{\'e}tricas, para os ciclos 2006/07 e 2009/10, 
                         apresentaram m{\'e}dias superiores {\`a}s verificadas nos demais 
                         anos. J{\'a} o ciclo 2003/04 apresentou a menor m{\'e}dia para a 
                         m{\'e}trica de Final do Ciclo Sazonal. As m{\'e}dias destes anos 
                         de comportamento at{\'{\i}}pico, para as m{\'e}tricas 
                         indicadas, foram significativamente diferentes (p<0,05) dos demais 
                         anos, de acordo com o teste estat{\'{\i}}stico t-pareado. 
                         Imagens z-padronizadas geradas para estas m{\'e}tricas indicaram 
                         desvios positivos com rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} m{\'e}dia para 
                         os ciclos 2006/07 e 2009/10, indicando que as temperaturas mais 
                         elevadas prolongaram o per{\'{\i}}odo de produtividade 
                         prim{\'a}ria destes ciclos em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} 2003/04. 
                         ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to verify possible 
                         relationships between phenologic metrics extracted from the 
                         TIMESAT algorithm, shadows from strong seasonal variations in 
                         solar zenith angle (SZA) and local topographic effects, and 
                         anomalous patterns of temperature observed in seasonal deciduous 
                         forest from the Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET), located in south 
                         Brazil. More specifically, the objectives were to: (1) 
                         characterize floristic-structurally the vegetation of the study 
                         area; (2) obtain phenologic metrics applying the TIMESAT to the 
                         Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) of the Moderate Resolution Imaging 
                         Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Terra) and analyze their seasonal 
                         variation; (3) correlate the phenologic metrics with the shade 
                         fractions derived from the linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) 
                         and with shaded relief values (Cos i) from topographic modeling; 
                         (4) identify anomalous patterns of temperature between 2002 and 
                         2012 using wavelet analysis applied to gauge station data; and (5) 
                         analyze the local influence of these anomalous patterns over the 
                         inter-annual variation of the phenologic metrics. Results showed 
                         that the seasonal EVI variations in the PET showed maximum and 
                         minimum values associated with decreasing leaf area index (LAI) 
                         and increasing SZA (canopy shadows and topographic effects) from 
                         the summer to winter. LAI variations mainly results from the 
                         deciduous species from the upper layer strata in response to the 
                         photoperiod and temperature and the physiologic drought in the 
                         winter. TIMESAT phenologic metrics associated with the periodicity 
                         of events (Start of Season, End of Season, Length of Season, Time 
                         of Middle of Season) were not correlated with the shade fraction 
                         from LSMM or with the shaded relief values (Cos i). On the other 
                         hand, metrics closely associated with the absolute EVI values 
                         (Base Value, Maximum Value, Amplitude, Left Derivative, Right 
                         Derivative, Large Integrated Value and Small Integrated Value) 
                         were correlated with shadows. The wavelet analysis indicated two 
                         high power seasonal cycles (2006/07 and 2009/10) and one low power 
                         cycle (2003/04). The largest power values were associated with the 
                         amplitude between the highest summer temperatures observed for 
                         2006/07 and 2009/10 and the lowest ones measured in the winter of 
                         2007 and 2009. The lowest wavelet power values were associated 
                         with the coldest winter of 2003/04. The temperature behavior of 
                         the summer of 2006/07 and 2009/10 is probably associated with El 
                         Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). When the correlation between the 
                         temperature and the inter-annual variation of phenologic metrics 
                         were analyzed, the absolute values of EVI minimum for the month of 
                         July (winter) were statistically correlated (r = +0.77) with 
                         average temperatures for the months of June and July, being 2007 
                         and 2009 the years with the lowest values of the series. Positive 
                         correlations were obtained for End of Season, Length of Season, 
                         Small and Large Integrated Values with minimum and mean 
                         temperatures. These metrics presented larger mean values in 
                         2006/07 and 2009/10 than in the other cycles. On the other hand, 
                         the lowest mean value was observed for End of Season in 2003/04. 
                         The mean metric values of these three cycles were statistically 
                         different from the other years, as indicated from a paired sample 
                         t-test (p < 0.05). Standardized z-score images showed positive 
                         standard deviation values for 2006/07 and 2009/10 and negative 
                         ones for 2003/04, indicating that the highest summer temperatures 
                         of the first two cycles prolonged the primary production period 
                         when compared to 2003/04.",
            committee = "Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares (presidente/orientador) and 
                         Breunig, F{\'a}bio Marcelo (orientador) and Ponzoni, Fl{\'a}vio 
                         Jorge and Santos, Jo{\~a}o Roberto dos and Sano, Edson Eyji",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Relationships of timesat phenologic metrics from EVI/MODIS with 
                         shadows and atypical temperature patterns in seasonal deciduous 
                         forest",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "112",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3J3G3LP",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3J3G3LP",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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