author = "Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares and Santos, Jo{\~a}o Roberto dos 
                         and Silva, Ricardo Dal'Agnol and Silva, Camila Val{\'e}ria and 
                         Moura, Yhasmin Mendes de and Breunig, Fabio Marcelo",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)}",
                title = "Following a site-specific secondary succession in the Amazon using 
                         the Landsat CDR product and field inventory data",
              journal = "International Journal of Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "36",
               number = "2",
                pages = "574--596",
             abstract = "Secondary forests cover large areas and are strong carbon sinks in 
                         tropical regions. They are important for ecosystem functioning, 
                         biodiversity conservation, watershed protection, and recovery of 
                         soil fertility. In this study, we used the Surface Reflectance 
                         Climate Data Record (CDR) product from 16 Thematic Mapper 
                         (TM)/Landsat-5 images (1984-2010) to continuously track the 
                         secondary succession (SS) of a forest following land abandonment 
                         in 1980. Changes in canopy structure and floristic composition 
                         were analysed using data from four field inventories (1995, 2002, 
                         2007, and 2012). To characterize variations in brightness, 
                         greenness, spectral reflectance, and shadows with the natural 
                         regeneration of vegetation, we applied tasselled cap 
                         transformations, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear 
                         spectral mixture models to the TM datasets. Shade fractions were 
                         plotted over time and correlated with the enhanced vegetation 
                         index (EVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). 
                         Because image texture may reflect the variability of the 
                         successional process, eight co-occurrence-based filter metrics 
                         were calculated for selected TM bands and plotted as a function of 
                         time since abandonment. The successional forest was compared to a 
                         nearby primary reference forest (PF) and had differences in the 
                         spectral and textural means evaluated using analysis of variance 
                         (ANOVA). The results showed increases of 35% and 10.4% over time 
                         in basal area and tree height, respectively. Species richness 
                         within the assemblage of sampling units increased from 14 to 71 
                         between 1995 and 2012, and this trend was also confirmed using an 
                         individual-based rarefaction analysis. Species richness in 2012 
                         was still lower than that observed in the PF site, which presented 
                         greater amounts of aboveground biomass (336.4 + 17.0 ton ha(-1) 
                         for PF versus 98.5 + 21.4 ton ha(-1) for SS in 2012). Brightness 
                         and greenness tasselled cap differences between the SS and PF 
                         rapidly decreased from 1984 (SS at the age of 4 years) to 1991 
                         (age of 11 years). Brightness also decreased from 1997 to 2003, as 
                         indicated by PC1 scores and surface reflectance of the TM bands 4 
                         (near infrared) and 5 (shortwave infrared). Spectral mixture shade 
                         fraction increased from young to old successional stages with 
                         strata composition and canopy structure development, whereas NDVI 
                         and EVI decreased over time. Because EVI was strongly dependent on 
                         near infrared reflectance (r = + 0.96), it was also much more 
                         strongly correlated with the shade fraction (r = -0.93) than NDVI. 
                         Except for the image texture mean that decreased from young to old 
                         successional stages in TM bands 4 and 5, no clear trend was 
                         observed in the remaining texturemetrics over the time period of 
                         vegetation regeneration. Overall, due to structural-floristic and 
                         spectral/textural differences with the PF, the SS site was still 
                         distinguishable using Landsat data 30 years after land 
                         abandonment. Most of the spectral metric means between PF and SS 
                         were significantly different over time at 0.01 significance level, 
                         as indicated by ANOVA.",
                  doi = "10.1080/01431161.2014.999879",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2014.999879",
                 issn = "0143-1161",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"