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@MastersThesis{Cairo:2015:CaTePr,
               author = "Cairo, Carolline Tressmann",
                title = "Caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o temporal das propriedades 
                         bio-{\'o}ticas do reservat{\'o}rio de Ibitinga/SP",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-04-08",
             keywords = "caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o bio-{\'o}tica, monitoramento da 
                         qualidade da {\'a}gua, reservat{\'o}rio tropical, componentes 
                         oticamente ativos, propriedades {\'o}ticas, bio-optic 
                         characterization, water quality monitoring, tropical reservoir, 
                         optically active components, optical properties.",
             abstract = "O grau de trofia dos reservat{\'o}rios vem sendo alterado por 
                         mudan{\c{c}}as das condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es ambientais decorrentes 
                         das atividades antr{\'o}picas, promovendo e intensificando o 
                         processo de eutrofiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o nesses ambientes de 
                         transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre rios e lagos e, consequentemente, 
                         deteriorando a qualidade das {\'a}guas superficiais. O 
                         monitoramento da qualidade da {\'a}gua desses ecossistemas 
                         aqu{\'a}ticos, ao longo do tempo e do espa{\c{c}}o, visa tanto 
                         assegurar seus m{\'u}ltiplos usos como orientar as 
                         pol{\'{\i}}ticas ambientais e de sa{\'u}de p{\'u}blica. As 
                         propriedades {\'o}ticas dos sistemas aqu{\'a}ticos s{\~a}o 
                         indicadores de propriedades biogeoqu{\'{\i}}micas, permitindo o 
                         seu monitoramento por meio de sensores da cor da {\'a}gua. A 
                         an{\'a}lise das propriedades bio-{\'o}ticas dos sistemas 
                         aqu{\'a}ticos pode dar subs{\'{\i}}dio ao desenvolvimento de 
                         modelos para a estimativa de seus componentes oticamente ativos 
                         (COAs) a partir de imagens de sensoriamento remoto, sendo, 
                         portanto, de grande relev{\^a}ncia para a expans{\~a}o das 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~o}es dessa tecnologia. Como o desenvolvimento de 
                         modelos requer informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es bio-{\'o}ticas que cubram 
                         um amplo range de varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos COAs e das propriedades 
                         {\'o}ticas inerentes e aparentes, a hip{\'o}tese que motiva esta 
                         pesquisa {\'e} determinar em que {\'e}poca do ano, dentre as 
                         analisadas, obt{\^e}m-se a maior amplitude de 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos COAs e das propriedades {\'o}ticas para 
                         o mesmo n{\'u}mero de amostras. O objetivo do presente estudo foi 
                         caracterizar a variabilidade espa{\c{c}}o-temporal das 
                         propriedades bio-{\'o}ticas do reservat{\'o}rio de Ibitinga/SP, 
                         a partir de dados radiom{\'e}tricos e limnol{\'o}gicos coletados 
                         \emph{in-situ} de fevereiro a julho de 2014. Em cada 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o amostral foram adquiridos perfis das seguintes 
                         vari{\'a}veis {\'o}ticas: coeficientes de absor{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         atenua{\c{c}}{\~a}o e retroespalhamento, bem como espectros de 
                         radi{\^a}ncias/irradi{\^a}ncias acima e na coluna 
                         d\${'}\${\'a}gua, sendo que estas medidas permitiram calcular o 
                         K\$_{d}\$ e a R\$_{RS}\$. Concomitante com estas medidas, 
                         amostras de {\'a}gua foram coletadas para 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o das concentra{\c{c}}{\~o}es dos 
                         constituintes oticamente ativos e dos coeficientes de 
                         absor{\c{c}}{\~a}o de particulados e de CDOM. Os valores 
                         m{\'{\i}}nimos e m{\'a}ximos do coeficiente de 
                         atenua{\c{c}}{\~a}o difusa da irradi{\^a}ncia descendente 
                         ponderado para a radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o fotossinteticamente ativa ( 
                         \$^{w}\$K\$_{d}\$\$_{(av)}\$ PAR) ao longo das campanhas de 
                         campo foram respectivamente 0,99 m\$^{-1}\$ e 3,45 m-\$^{1}\$. 
                         J{\'a} a faixa de concentra{\c{c}}{\~o}es m{\'e}dias dos COAs 
                         foi de 14,39 a 16,17 mg/L para o carbono total dissolvido (DTC), 
                         11,46 a 100,53 \$\mu\$g/L para clorofila-a e 1,83 a 14,53 mg/L 
                         para o material em suspens{\~a}o total (MST). Os valores 
                         m{\'{\i}}nimo e m{\'a}ximo de absor{\c{c}}{\~a}o por CDOM em 
                         440 nm foram 0,730 m\$^{-1}\$ e 1,708 m\$^{-1}\$, 
                         respectivamente. Observou-se em todas as esta{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         amostrais baixa disponibilidade de luz na regi{\~a}o do azul na 
                         profundidade de 1 metro, evidenciando que a absor{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         por CDOM {\'e} significativa no reservat{\'o}rio no 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo amostrado. Al{\'e}m disso, verificou-se que a 
                         variabilidade do Kd {\'e} influenciada principalmente pela 
                         presen{\c{c}}a de fitopl{\^a}ncton e CDOM no reservat{\'o}rio, 
                         sendo que a R\$_{RS}\$ tamb{\'e}m mostrou tend{\^e}ncias 
                         semelhantes. Disso se conclui que a an{\'a}lise de todos os dados 
                         indicou mudan{\c{c}}as das propriedades {\'o}ticas no 
                         espa{\c{c}}o e no tempo, sendo m{\'a}xima a variabilidade 
                         espacial nos meses de chuva e m{\'{\i}}nima nos meses secos e 
                         frios. Ao longo do tempo, do ver{\~a}o para o inverno, as 
                         propriedades {\'o}ticas do reservat{\'o}rio tendem a ser cada 
                         vez mais dominadas pelo CDOM. ABSTRACT: Reservoir\${'}\$s 
                         trophic level has been drastically changed by alterations in the 
                         environmental conditions derived from human activities causing 
                         eutrophication and deterioration of the quality of surface waters. 
                         Water quality in time and space helps to ensure 
                         reservoir\${'}\$s multiple uses and provides guidelines for 
                         public health policies. The optical properties of aquatic systems 
                         are indicators of biogeochemical properties, allowing their 
                         monitoring by the color water sensors. The analysis of bio-optical 
                         properties of aquatic systems can give subsidy to the development 
                         of models for the estimation of its optically active components 
                         (AOCs) from remote sensing images, and is therefore of great 
                         importance for the expansion of applications of this technology. 
                         As the development of models requires bio-optical information 
                         covering a wide range of AOCs and the inherent and apparent 
                         optical properties variation, the hypothesis that motivates this 
                         research is to determine in what time of the year, among the 
                         analyzed, is obtained the greatest amplitude variation of AOCs and 
                         optical properties for the same number of samples. The aim of this 
                         study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability of 
                         the bio-optical properties of the Ibitinga/SP reservoir using 
                         radiometric and limnological data collected in-situ throughout the 
                         year between February and July of 2014. At each sampling station 
                         the profiles were acquired in the following optical variable: 
                         absorption, attenuation and backscattering coefficients, as well 
                         as the radiance/irradiance spectrums above and in the water 
                         column, and these measures allowed to calculate the K\$_{d}\$ 
                         and R\$_{r}\$s. Concurrently with these measures, water samples 
                         were collected to determine the concentrations of optically active 
                         constituents and absorption coefficients of particles and CDOM. 
                         The minimum and maximum values of the downward irradiance-weighted 
                         diffuse attenuation coefficient for the photosynthetically active 
                         radiation ( \$^{w}\$K\$_{d}\$\$_{(av)}\$ PAR) over the field 
                         campaigns were respectively 0.99 m\$^{-1}\$ and 3.45 
                         m\$^{-1}\$. The average intervals of the concentrations of AOCs 
                         was 14.39 to 16.17 mg/L for dissolved total carbon (DTC), 11.46 to 
                         100.53 \$\mu\$g/L for chlorophyll-a and 1.83 to 14.53 mg/L for 
                         total suspended material (MST). The minimum and maximum values of 
                         absorption in 440 nm by CDOM were 0.730 m\$^{-1}\$ and 1.708 
                         m\$^{-1}\$, respectively. It was noted that in all stations 
                         there is low light availability in blue region in one meter, 
                         evidencing that absorption by CDOM is significant in the reservoir 
                         over the months in stations. Furthermore, it was found in this 
                         study that the K\$_{d}\$ variability is influenced mainly by the 
                         presence of phytoplankton and CDOM in the reservoir, and the 
                         R\$_{rs}\$ also showed similar trends. The analysis of all data 
                         indicated changes in the optical properties in space and time, 
                         being the spatial variability maximum in the rainy months and 
                         minimum in dry and cold months. Over time, from summer to winter, 
                         the reservoir optical properties tend to be increasingly dominated 
                         by CDOM.",
            committee = "Barbosa, Cl{\'a}udio Clemente Faria (presidente/orientador) and 
                         Calijuri, Maria do Carmo (orientadora) and Novo, Evlyn M{\'a}rcia 
                         Le{\~a}o de Moraes and Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares and Pereira 
                         Filho, Waterloo",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Temporal characterization of the bio-optical properties of the 
                         Ibitinga/SP reservoir",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "147",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3J4KK5E",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3J4KK5E",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"
}


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