author = "Archer-Nicholls, S. and Lowe, D. and Darbyshire, E. and Morgan, W. 
                         T. and Bela, M. M. and Pereira, G. and Trembath, J. and Kaiser, J. 
                         W. and Freitas, Karla Maria Longo de and Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro de 
                         and Coe, H. and McFiggans, G.",
          affiliation = "{University of Manchester} and {University of Manchester} and 
                         {University of Manchester} and {University of Manchester} and 
                         {University of Colorado} and {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o 
                         Jo{\~a}o Del Rei (UFSJ)} and {Cranfield University} and {King’s 
                         College London (KCL)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {University of Manchester} and {University of 
                title = "Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem 
                         with MOSAIC sectional aerosol",
              journal = "Geoscientific Model Development",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "8",
                pages = "549--577",
             abstract = "The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field 
                         campaign took detailed in situ flight measurements of aerosol 
                         during the 2012 dry season to characterise biomass burning aerosol 
                         and improve understanding of its impacts on weather and climate. 
                         Developments have been made to the Weather Research and Forecast 
                         model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to improve the 
                         representation of biomass burning aerosol in the region, by 
                         coupling a sectional aerosol scheme to the plume-rise 
                         parameterisation. Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM) 
                         fire emissions are used, prepared using PREP-CHEM-SRC, and mapped 
                         to CBM-Z and MOSAIC species. Model results have been evaluated 
                         against remote sensing products, AERONET sites, and four case 
                         studies of flight measurements from the SAMBBA campaign. WRF-Chem 
                         predicted layers of elevated aerosol loadings (520 µg sm\−3 
                         ) of particulate organic matter at high altitude (68 km) over 
                         tropical forest regions, while flight measurements showed a sharp 
                         decrease above 24 km altitude. This difference was attributed to 
                         the plume-rise parameterisation overestimating injection height. 
                         The 3BEM emissions product was modified using estimates of active 
                         fire size and burned area for the 2012 fire season, which reduced 
                         the fire size. The enhancement factor for fire emissions was 
                         increased from 1.3 to 5 to retain reasonable aerosol optical 
                         depths (AODs). The smaller fire size lowered the injection height 
                         of the emissions, but WRF-Chem still showed elevated aerosol 
                         loadings between 45 km altitude. Over eastern cerrado 
                         (savannah-like) regions, both modelled and measured aerosol 
                         loadings decreased above approximately 4 km altitude. Compared 
                         with MODIS satellite data and AERONET sites, WRF-Chem represented 
                         AOD magnitude well (between 0.31.5) over western tropical forest 
                         fire regions in the first half of the campaign, but tended to 
                         over-predict them in the second half, when precipitation was more 
                         significant. Over eastern cerrado regions, WRF-Chem tended to 
                         underpredict AODs. Modelled aerosol loadings in the east were 
                         higher in the modified emission scenario. The primary organic 
                         matter to black carbon ratio was typically between 810 in 
                         WRF-Chem. This was lower than the western flight measurements 
                         (interquartile range of 11.615.7 in B734, 14.724.0 in B739), but 
                         similar to the eastern flight B742 (8.110.4). However, single 
                         scattering albedo was close to measured over the western flights 
                         (0.870.89 in model; 0.860.91 in flight B734, and 0.810.95 in 
                         flight B739 measurements) but too high over the eastern flight 
                         B742 (0.860.87 in model, 0.790.82 in measurements). This suggests 
                         that improvements are needed to both modelled aerosol composition 
                         and optical properties calculations in WRF-Chem.",
                  doi = "10.5194/gmd-8-549-2015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-549-2015",
                 issn = "1991-959X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "archer_characterising.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 nov. 2020"