author = "Brienen, R. J. W. and Phillips, O. L. and Feldpausch, T. R. and 
                         Gloor, E. and Baker, T. R. and Lloyd, J. and Lopez-Gonzalez, G. 
                         and Monteagudo-Mendoza, A. and Malhi, Y. and Lewis, S. L. and 
                         V{\'a}squez Martinez, R. and Alexiades, M. and {\'A}lvarez 
                         D{\'a}vila, E. and Alvarez-Loayza, P. and Andrade, A. and 
                         Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de and Araujo-Murakami, 
                         A. and Arets, E. J. M. M. and Arroyo, L. and Aymard, G. A. and 
                         B{\'a}nki, O. S. and Baraloto, C. and Barroso, J. and Bonal, D. 
                         and Boot, R. G. A. and Camargo, J. L. C. and Castilho, C. V. and 
                         Chama, V. and Chao, K. J. and Chave, J. and Comiskey, J. A. and 
                         Cornejo Valverde, F. and Costa, L. and Oliveira, E. A. and Di 
                         Fiore, A. and Erwin, T. L. and Fauset, S. and Forsthofer, M. and 
                         Galbraith, D. R. and Grahame, E. S. and Groot, N. and 
                         H{\'e}rault, B. and Higuchi, N. and Honorio Coronado, E. N. and 
                         Keeling, H. and Killeen, T. J. and Laurance, W. F. and Laurance, 
                         S. and Licona, J. and Magnussen, W. E. and Marimon, B. S. and 
                         Marimon Junior, B. H. and Mendoza, C. and Neill, D. A. and 
                         Nogueira, E. M. and Nuñez, P. and Pallqui Camacho, N. C. and 
                         Parada, A. and Pardo Molina, G. and Peacock, J. and Peña-Claros, 
                         M. and Pickavance, G. C. and Pitman, M. C. A. and Poorter, L. and 
                         Prieto, L. and Quesada, C. A. and Ramirez, F. and Ramirez-Angulo, 
                         H. and Restrepo, Z. and Roopsind, A. and Rudas, A. and 
                         Salom{\~a}o, R. P. and Schwarz, J. and N., Silva and Silva 
                         Espejo, J. E. and Silveira, M. and Stropp, J. and Talbot, J. and 
                         teer Steege, H. and Teran-Aguilar, J. and Terbogh, J. and Thomas 
                         Caesar, R. and M. , Toledo and Torello Raventos, M. and Umetsu, R. 
                         K. and van der Heijden, G. M. F. and van der Hout, P. and 
                         Guimar{\~a}es Vieira, I. C. and Vieira, S. A. and E. , Vilanova 
                         and Vos, V. A. and Zagt, R. J.",
          affiliation = "{University of Leeds} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} 
                         and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink",
              journal = "Nature",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "519",
               number = "7543",
                pages = "344--348",
                month = "19 Mar.",
             keywords = "Forest ecology, climate change ecology, population dynamics.",
             abstract = "Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface 
                         has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades1, 2, 
                         with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the 
                         tropics3, particularly in the Amazon4. Nevertheless, it is unclear 
                         how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and 
                         atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the 
                         historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon 
                         rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 
                         plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted 
                         as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing 
                         trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in 
                         above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade 
                         compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate 
                         increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality 
                         persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of 
                         carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality 
                         increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of 
                         faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree 
                         longevity5. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges 
                         markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at 
                         the global scale1, 2, and is contrary to expectations based on 
                  doi = "10.1038/nature14283",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14283",
                 issn = "0028-0836",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"