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@PhDThesis{MenezesNeto:2015:EfClAe,
               author = "Menezes Neto, Otacilio Leandro de",
                title = "Impactos de um esquema de levantamento de pluma de queimada na 
                         modelagem do sistema terrestre: Efeitos climatol{\'o}gicos dos 
                         aeross{\'o}is de biomassa na temperatura e balan{\c{c}}o de 
                         energia para a Am{\'e}rica do Sul",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-05-25",
             keywords = "queima de biomassa, aeross{\'o}is, balan{\c{c}}o de energia, 
                         climatologia, biomass burning, aerosols, energy budget, 
                         climatology.",
             abstract = "Nas {\'u}ltimas d{\'e}cadas o desenvolvimento de pesquisa em 
                         modelagem do sistema terrestre tem sido consider{\'a}vel, devido 
                         {\`a} melhoria da capacidade computacional e ao desenvolvimento 
                         de novos modelos, cada vez mais complexos. Uma das componentes do 
                         sistema clim{\'a}tico que teve bastante desenvolvimento recente e 
                         de extrema import{\^a}ncia para simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         clim{\'a}ticas s{\~a}o os aeross{\'o}is atmosf{\'e}ricos, pois 
                         estes t{\^e}m a propriedade de interagir com a 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar, alterando assim, todo o balan{\c{c}}o 
                         de energia na superf{\'{\i}}cie. Neste contexto, para a 
                         regi{\~a}o da Am{\'e}rica do Sul, a maior fonte de emiss{\~o}es 
                         de poluentes (aeross{\'o}is provenientes da queima de biomassa e 
                         gases provenientes da combust{\~a}o) s{\~a}o as queimadas que 
                         ocorrem sazonalmente na regi{\~a}o Amaz{\^o}nica. Para estudar 
                         quais seus impactos nas vari{\'a}veis de temperatura e nas 
                         componentes de balan{\c{c}}o de energia, foram feitas 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es clim{\'a}ticas (no per{\'{\i}}odo de 
                         1979 a 2005) usando o modelo do sistema terrestre do \emph{UK-Met 
                         Office Hadley Centre} HadGEM2-ES. Neste modelo foi ainda 
                         inclu{\'{\i}}da a parametriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de levantamento de 
                         plumas quentes (do ingl{\^e}s Hot Plume Rise - HPR), desenvolvida 
                         no INPE, que estima, baseado nas caracter{\'{\i}}sticas 
                         termodin{\^a}micas do modelo global, qual a altura vertical onde 
                         os aeross{\'o}is de queima de biomassa ser{\~a}o liberados na 
                         atmosfera. Para avaliar os impactos dos aeross{\'o}is no 
                         balan{\c{c}}o de energia, primeiro foram realizados e analisados 
                         dois experimentos, um contendo os aeross{\'o}is de queima de 
                         biomassa com o esquema de HPR e outro onde os aeross{\'o}is de 
                         queima de biomassa foram \${{"}}\$desligados\${{"}}\$ (chamado 
                         BIOMASS OFF). Os resultados mostram que para a regi{\~a}o de 
                         fortes emiss{\~o}es o impacto na temperatura {\'e} de 
                         resfriamento devido {\`a} redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o no saldo de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de onda curta. Outra an{\'a}lise realizada 
                         foi avaliar a import{\^a}ncia de se ter esta 
                         parametriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de HPR em simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         clim{\'a}ticas, onde foi comparado o experimento contendo esta 
                         parametriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o com outro experimento onde todos os 
                         aeross{\'o}is de queima de biomassa foram liberados na 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie deixando a convec{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo 
                         transportar estes aeross{\'o}is verticalmente. No experimento HPR 
                         esse transporte {\'e} mais eficiente e, portanto os 
                         aeross{\'o}is de queima de biomassa deste caso est{\~a}o mais 
                         sujeitos a a{\c{c}}{\~a}o de ventos mais intensos, sendo 
                         transportados mais em dire{\c{c}}{\~a}o sul/sudeste, enquanto no 
                         HPR OFF o transporte se d{\'a} mais para leste da regi{\~a}o 
                         Amaz{\^o}nica. Esta diferen{\c{c}}a no transporte, impacta nos 
                         fluxos de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar incidente e nos fluxos 
                         turbulentos (calor sens{\'{\i}}vel e calor latente) em 
                         diferentes regi{\~o}es. ABSTRACT: In recent decades the 
                         development of research in earth system modeling has been 
                         considerable, due to improved computing power and the development 
                         of new models, increasingly complex. One of the components of the 
                         climate systems that developed a lot recently and are extremely 
                         important for climate simulations are the atmospheric aerosols, as 
                         they have the property to interact with solar radiation, changing 
                         so all the energy balance at the surface. In this context, the 
                         South American region, the largest sources of pollutant (biomass 
                         burning aerosols and combustion gases) are the forest fires that 
                         occur seasonally in the Amazon region. In order to study what 
                         would be the impact of aerosols on temperature variables and the 
                         energy balance components, climate simulations were performed 
                         (from 1979 to 2005) using the Earth system model of the UK-Met 
                         Office Hadley Centre HadGEM2-ES. In this model was included the 
                         Hot Plume Rise parameterization (HPR), developed at INPE, which 
                         estimates based on thermodynamic characteristics of the global 
                         model what would be the vertical height where the biomass aerosols 
                         are released into the atmosphere. To assess the impacts of 
                         aerosols on the energy budget, were first performed and analyzed 
                         two experiments, one containing biomass aerosols with HPR scheme 
                         and another where the biomass aerosols were turned off (called 
                         BIOMASS OFF). The results shows, at strong emission region, the 
                         impact on the temperature is cooling the surface due to the 
                         reduction in shortwave radiation balance. Further investigation 
                         was performed to evaluate the importance of having this HPR 
                         parameterization in climate simulations, where the experiment was 
                         compared containing this parameter with another experiment where 
                         all the biomass aerosols were released on the surface letting the 
                         model of convection transport these aerosols vertically. In the 
                         experiment HPR the vertical transport is more efficient and 
                         therefore the biomass aerosol are advected by stronger winds and 
                         are transported south/southeast, while in the OFF HPR transport 
                         occurs to east the Amazon region by low level winds. This 
                         difference in aerosols transport impacts the solar radiation and 
                         turbulent fluxes in different regions.",
            committee = "Gon{\c{c}}alves, Luis Gustavo Gon{\c{c}}alves de (presidente) 
                         and Orsini, Jos{\'e} Ant{\^o}nio Marengo (orientador) and 
                         Coutinho, Mariane Mendes (orientadora) and Rivero, Silvio Nilo 
                         Figueroa and Ros{\'a}rio, Nilton Manuel {\'E}vora do and 
                         Andrade, Maria de F{\'a}tima",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "The impact of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: 
                         climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface 
                         temperature and energy budget of South America",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "151",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3JB6CU8",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3JB6CU8",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"
}


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