author = "Lorenzzetti, Jo{\~a}o Ant{\^o}nio and Araujo, Carlos Alberto 
                         Sampaio de and Curtarelli, Marcelo Pedroso",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Mean diel variability of surface energy fluxes over Manso 
              journal = "Inland Waters",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "5",
               number = "2",
                pages = "155--172",
             keywords = "ABL instability effect, diel variability, Manso reservoir, surface 
                         heat budget, turbulent and radiational surface heat fluxes.",
             abstract = "Mean diel cycle of latent (E), sensible (H), net longwave 
                         (Lw(net)), net shortwave (S-w), and net surface heat flux balance 
                         (S) were estimated from hourly meteorological and subsurface water 
                         temperature time series acquired for similar to 1 month during 
                         mid-austral autumn by a buoy system in a large tropical reservoir 
                         in Brazil. E and H were in phase and had their maximum (E = 163 
                         Wm(-2); H = 39 Wm(-2)) at early morning and minimum (E = 112 
                         Wm(-2); H = 6 Wm(-2)) midafter-noon, resulting in Bowen ratios of 
                         0.24 and 0.06, respectively. Heat loss by evaporation therefore 
                         dominates over sensible heat used to warm surface atmosphere. 
                         Atmospheric instability was present almost all the time, 
                         increasing latent and sensible heat flux exchange coefficients by 
                         similar to 50% over their neutral values (from 1.4 x 10(-3) to 2.2 
                         x 10(-3)). Mean Lwnet varied from 76 at late afternoon to 89 
                         Wm(-2) at early morning, indicating its importance in the overall 
                         surface heat flux balance. All 3 fluxes (E, H, and Lw(net)) were 
                         positive (reservoir losing energy) throughout the day. The 
                         integrated daily average net energy budget S (net short wave 
                         radiation minus E+H+Lw(net)) was similar to-60 Wm(-2); nighttime 
                         energy loss exceeded daytime gain, with consequent cooling of the 
                         reservoir. A mean temperature drop of about -0.1 degrees C d(-1) 
                         was obtained by fitting a linear trend line to observed daily mean 
                         surface temperatures. In a qualitative way, diel time variations 
                         of surface water temperature were consistent to the time 
                         variability of S, indicating the dominant role of the surface heat 
                         budget in modulating surface layer temperatures of the 
                  doi = "10.5268/IW-5.2.761",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5268/IW-5.2.761",
                 issn = "2044-2041 and 2044-205X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Lorenzzetti_mean.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 jan. 2021"