author = "Paradella, Waldir Renato and Ferretti, Alessandro and Mura, 
                         Jos{\'e} Cl{\'a}udio and Colombo, Davide and Gama, F{\'a}bio 
                         Furlan and Tamburini, Andrea and Santos, Athos Ribeiro dos and 
                         Novali, Fabrizio and Galo, Mauricio and Camargo, Paulo O. and 
                         Silva, Arnaldo Q. and Silva, Guilherme Gregorio and Silva, 
                         Aristotelina and Gomes, Leonardo L.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Tele-Rilevamento Europa} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Tele-Rilevamento Europa} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Tele-Rilevamento 
                         Europa} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Tele-Rilevamento Europa} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista 
                         (UNESP)} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Vale S.A.} and {Vale S.A.}",
                title = "Mapping surface deformation in open pit iron mines of Caraj{\'a}s 
                         Province (Amazon Region) using an integrated SAR analysis",
              journal = "Engineering Geology",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "193",
                pages = "61--78",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "DInSAR, TerraSAR-X, Mining areas, Geodetic monitoring, Open pit 
                         deformation, Amazon region.",
             abstract = "The Caraj{\'a}s mineral province encompasses the world's largest 
                         iron reserves with excavation carried out through open pit 
                         benching. Mining operations in the area have significant areas of 
                         rock mass movements and surface displacements that potentially 
                         lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and 
                         production. Instabilities can be expected due to deep excavations 
                         in rock masses of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices 
                         and heavy precipitation. In this paper, ground instabilities are 
                         monitored through an integrated SAR analysis based on a data-stack 
                         of 33 TerraSAR-X images. This approach was designed to monitor 
                         distinct displacement regimes, ranging from small to high 
                         deformation rates, and to map surface changes, based on variations 
                         of radar reflectivity. Results were compared with field 
                         information (total station/prisms, ground based radar, geological 
                         and geomechanical maps), and the approach showed to be effective 
                         for monitoring ground deformation in the region. Due to its 
                         capabilities (synoptic view, high accuracy, dense grid sampling), 
                         the complementary use of space-based SAR with field monitoring 
                         systems proved to be strategic for operational mining planning and 
                         risk assessment in this challenging environment.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.04.015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.04.015",
                 issn = "0013-7952",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "paradella_mapping.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"