author = "Leite, Paulo Henrique Mineiro and Santos, Wilson Fernando Nogueira 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Computational analysis of the flow field structure of a 
                         non-reacting hypersonic flow over forward-facing steps",
              journal = "Journal of Fluid Mechanics",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "763",
                pages = "460--499",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "boundary layer separation, high-speed flow, molecular dynamics.",
             abstract = "This work is a computational study of a rarefied non-reacting 
                         hypersonic flow past a forward-facing step at zero-degree angle of 
                         attack in thermal non-equilibrium. Effects on the flow field 
                         structure and on the aerodynamic surface quantities due to changes 
                         in step frontal-face height are investigated by employing the 
                         direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The work focuses the 
                         attention of designers of hypersonic configurations on the 
                         fundamental parameter of surface discontinuity, which can have an 
                         important impact on even initial design. The results presented 
                         highlight the sensitivity of the primary flow field properties, 
                         velocity, density, pressure and temperature, to changes in the 
                         step frontal-face height. In addition, the behaviour of heat 
                         transfer, pressure and skin friction coefficients with variation 
                         of the step frontal-face height is detailed. The analysis shows 
                         that hypersonic flow past a forward-facing step in the transition 
                         flow regime is characterized by a strong compression ahead of the 
                         frontal face, which influences the aerodynamic surface properties 
                         upstream and adjacent to the frontal face. The analysis also shows 
                         that the extension of the upstream disturbance depends on the step 
                         frontal-face height. It was found that the recirculation region 
                         ahead of the step is also a function of the frontal-face height. A 
                         sequence of Moffatt eddies of decreasing size and intensity is 
                         observed in the concave step corner. Locally high heating and 
                         pressure loads were observed at three locations along the surface, 
                         i.e. on the lower surface, on the frontal face and on the upper 
                         surface. The results showed that both loads rely on the 
                         frontal-face height. The peak values for the heat transfer 
                         coefficient on the frontal-face surface were at least one order of 
                         magnitude larger than the maximum value observed for a smooth 
                         surface, i.e. a flat plate without a step. A comparison of the 
                         present simulation results with numerical and experimental data 
                         showed close agreement concerning the wall pressure acting on the 
                         step surface.",
                  doi = "10.1017/jfm.2014.677",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.677",
                 issn = "0022-1120",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "leite_computational.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "20 jan. 2021"