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@Article{PintoJr:2015:ENTrAt,
               author = "Pinto Junior, Osmar",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Thunderstorm climatology of Brazil: ENSO and Tropical Atlantic 
                         connections",
              journal = "International Journal of Climatology",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "35",
               number = "6",
                pages = "871--878",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "Brazil, Climatology, ENSO, Thunderstorms, Tropical Atlantic 
                         Ocean.",
             abstract = "In this report monthly thunderstorm days (TD) in 14 large cities 
                         of Brazil from 1951 to 2010 are compared with data obtained in the 
                         first part of the 20th century in the same cities and correlated 
                         with sea surface temperature (SST) of the equatorial Pacific Ocean 
                         and Tropical Atlantic Ocean. On average over all cities, 77 TD are 
                         reported each year after 1951, against 43 TD in the first part of 
                         the 20th century, an increase of 79%. The increase seems to be 
                         related to increase in the urbanization in these cities, and not 
                         to global warming. A comparative analysis of TD for the whole 
                         country with El Niņo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events suggests 
                         that the tendency for El Niņo to increase the thunderstorm 
                         activity is evident in the South (only in the Spring/Summer), 
                         Southeast, Northeast and North (only in the Fall/Winter) regions. 
                         Regarding the Tropical Atlantic Ocean SST, a similar analysis 
                         using the Tropical South Atlantic (TSA) and Tropical North 
                         Atlantic (TNA) indices suggests that no significant differences 
                         exist between the thunderstorm activity for the two extreme 
                         positive and negative TSA conditions in the South and Southeast 
                         regions, while in the Northeast and North regions there is a 
                         significant increase in the thunderstorm activity during extreme 
                         positive TSA. Differently, only in the Northeast region there is a 
                         significant influence of TNA on thunderstorm activity. The 
                         influence is such that the thunderstorm activity is larger for the 
                         extreme negative TNA than for extreme positive TNA. All 
                         significant changes were quantified and significant variations 
                         were observed. For all parameters investigated (ENSO, TSA and TNA) 
                         the Northeast region showed the most significant changes.",
                  doi = "10.1002/joc.4022",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.4022",
                 issn = "0899-8418",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Pinto_thunderstorn.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"
}


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