author = "Tsurutani, Bruce T. and Rajra, Rajkumar and Echer, Ezequiel and 
                         Gjerloev, J. W.",
          affiliation = "{Jet Propulsion Laboratory} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics 
                title = "Extremely intense (SML \≤2500 nT) substorms: Isolated 
                         events that are externally triggered?",
              journal = "Annales Geophysicae",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "33",
               number = "5/6",
                pages = "519--524",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms).",
             abstract = "We examine particularly intense substorms (SML \≤2500 nT), 
                         hereafter called {"}supersubstorms{"} or SSS events, to identify 
                         their nature and their magnetic storm dependences. It is found 
                         that these intense substorms are typically isolated events and are 
                         only loosely related to magnetic storms. SSS events can occur 
                         during super (Dst \≤250 nT) and intense ('100 nT \≥ 
                         Dst >250) magnetic storms. SSS events can also occur during 
                         nonstorm (Dst \≥50 nT) intervals. SSSs are important 
                         because the strongest ionospheric currents will flow during these 
                         events, potentially causing power outages on Earth. Several SSS 
                         examples are shown. SSS events appear to be externally triggered 
                         by small regions of very high density (\∼30 to 50 
                         cm\−3) solar wind plasma parcels (PPs) impinging upon the 
                         magnetosphere. Precursor southward interplanetary magnetic fields 
                         are detected prior to the PPs hitting the magnetosphere. Our 
                         hypothesis is that these southward fields input energy into the 
                         magnetosphere/magnetotail and the PPs trigger the release of the 
                         stored energy.",
                  doi = "10.5194/angeo-33-519-2015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-33-519-2015",
                 issn = "0992-7689",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "tsurutani_extremely.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "30 nov. 2020"