author = "Oliveira, R{\^o}mulo Augusto Juc{\'a} and Braga, Ramon Campos 
                         and Vila, Daniel Alejandro and Morales, Carlos A.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Evaluation of GPROF-SSMI/S rainfall estimates over land during the 
                         Brazilian CHUVA-VALE campaign",
              journal = "Atmospheric Research",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "163",
                pages = "102--116",
             abstract = "One of the major goals of the CHUVA project (Cloud processes of 
                         tHemain precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud 
                         resolVingmodeling and to the GPM[GlobAl PrecipitationMeasurement]) 
                         is to collect information about the cloud processes of themain 
                         precipitating systems over Brazil in order to evaluate and improve 
                         the quality of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Thus, this 
                         paper evaluates the performance of the Goddard Profiling 
                         Algorithm(GPROF) version 2004 for the Special SensorMicrowave 
                         Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensor, carried onboard the 
                         DefenseMeteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F16, F17 and F18 
                         satellites, for instantaneous rain rates over land by comparing 
                         with other remote sensing based estimates such as X-band dual 
                         polarization rainfall retrievals from the CHUVA Project (named 
                         here X-band CHUVA radar) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement 
                         Mission) Precipitation Radar version 7 (PR-V7) precipitation 
                         estimates (named here the 2A25_V7 product) for the CHUVA-VALE 
                         campaign. The analyses were performed on an area within a radius 
                         of 60 km from the X-band CHUVA radar, located at S{\~a}o 
                         Jos{\'e} dos Campos, SP Brazil (centered at 23.2S and 45.95W) 
                         and another delimited by 41W51Wand 18S28S (10 x 10 box). 
                         GPROF showed an overestimate of light/moderate rain rate 
                         intensities,while underestimating the rainfall rates above 
                         10mmh\−1, considering the X-band CHUVA radar as reference. 
                         The same behaviorwas observed when comparedwith the 2A25_V7 
                         database. Through a PDF analysis, GPROFwas found to overestimate 
                         the frequencies of moderate rain rates (between 2 and 
                         10mmh\−1, above 15%), and underestimate the frequencies of 
                         light and high rain rates (b2mmh\−1 and N10mmh\−1, 
                         respectively) when compared to both the X-band CHUVA radar and 
                         2A25_V7 reference databases. The results for the studied region 
                         suggest that GPROF has a relatively good agreement (spatial 
                         distribution and accumulated rainfall), especially for convective 
                         rain cases, due the significant presence of ice scattering. 
                         However, the intensity of light/moderate rains is overestimated.",
                 issn = "0169-8095",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Oliveira_Evaluation.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"