author = "Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andr{\'e}s and Senkpeil, Ryan R. and Longcope, 
                         Dana W. and Tlatov, Andrey G. and Pevtsov, Alexei A. and 
                         Balmaceda, Laura Antonia and DeLuca, Edward E. and Martens, Petrus 
                         C. H.",
          affiliation = "{Montana State University} and {Purdue University} and {Montana 
                         State University} and {Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of 
                         the Pulkovo Observatory} and {National Solar Observatory} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics} and {Georgia State 
                title = "The minimum of solar cycle 23: as deep as it could be?",
              journal = "The Astrophysical Journal",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "804",
               number = "68",
             keywords = "Sun: activity – Sun: magnetic fields – Sun: photosphere – 
             abstract = "In this work we introduce a new way of binning sunspot group data 
                         with the purpose of better understanding the impact of the solar 
                         cycle on sunspot properties and how this defined the 
                         characteristics of the extended minimum of cycle 23. Our approach 
                         assumes that the statistical properties of sunspots are completely 
                         determined by the strength of the underlying large-scale field and 
                         have no additional time dependencies. We use the amplitude of the 
                         cycle at any given moment (something we refer to as activity 
                         level) as a proxy for the strength of this deep-seated magnetic 
                         field. We find that the sunspot size distribution is composed of 
                         two populations: one population of groups and active regions and a 
                         second population of pores and ephemeral regions. When fits are 
                         performed at periods of different activity level, only the 
                         statistical properties of the former population, the active 
                         regions, are found to vary. Finally, we study the relative 
                         contribution of each component (small-scale versus large-scale) to 
                         solar magnetism. We find that when hemispheres are treated 
                         separately, almost every one of the past 12 solar minima reaches a 
                         point where the main contribution to magnetism comes from the 
                         small-scale component. However, due to asymmetries in cycle phase, 
                         this state is very rarely reached by both hemispheres at the same 
                         time. From this we infer that even though each hemisphere did 
                         reach the magnetic baseline, from a heliospheric point of view the 
                         minimum of cycle 23 was not as deep as it could have been.",
                  doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/68",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/68",
                 issn = "0004-637X",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"