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@Article{SouzaAndrKayaCarv:2015:AsClVa,
               author = "Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de and Andreoli, Rita Val{\'e}ria 
                         and Kayano, Mary Toshie and Carvalho, Afr{\^a}nio Lima",
          affiliation = "{Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and {Universidade do 
                         Estado do Amazonas (UEA)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA)}",
                title = "American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region 
                         of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time",
              journal = "Geospatial Health",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "10",
               number = "1",
                pages = "40--47",
             keywords = "American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Climate association, ENSO, 
                         Remote sensing, NDVI.",
             abstract = "A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index 
                         (NDVI) and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 
                         2009 was used for the study of the potential association between 
                         the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous 
                         leishmaniasis (CL) in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR), State of 
                         Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked 
                         seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. 
                         Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number 
                         of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a 
                         clear relation to the El Niņo/La Niņa Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 
                         and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry 
                         conditions in the MMR follow El Niņo after a lag period of 3 
                         months, while wet conditions follow La Niņa, again after a lag 
                         period of 3 months. El Niņo brings dry conditions with warming of 
                         the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes 
                         as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased 
                         numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 
                         months later. La Niņa, on the other hand, produces wet and cool 
                         weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and 
                         therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since 
                         these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL 
                         vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO 
                         phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for 
                         monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.",
                  doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/gh.2015.314",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/gh.2015.314",
                 issn = "1827-1987 and 1970-7096",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Souza_American.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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