author = "Gon{\c{c}}alves, W. A. and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and 
                         Kirstetter, P. -E.",
          affiliation = "{} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Influence of biomass aerosol on precipitation over the Central 
                         Amazon: an observational study",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "15",
                pages = "6789–6800",
             abstract = "Understanding the influence of biomass burning aerosol on clouds 
                         and precipitation in the Amazon is key to reducing uncertainties 
                         in simulations of climate change scenarios with regard to 
                         deforestation fires. Here, we associate rainfall characteristics 
                         obtained from an S-band radar in the Amazon with in situ 
                         measurements of biomass burning aerosol for the entire year of 
                         2009. The most important results were obtained during the dry 
                         season (JulyDecember). The results indicate that the influence of 
                         aerosol on precipitating systems is modulated by the atmospheric 
                         degree of instability. For less unstable atmospheres, the higher 
                         the aerosol concentration is, the lower the precipitation is over 
                         the region. In contrast, for more unstable cases, higher 
                         concentrations of black carbon are associated with greater 
                         precipitation, increased ice content, and larger rain cells; this 
                         finding suggests an association with long-lived systems. The 
                         results presented are statistically significant. However, due to 
                         limitations imposed by the available data set, important features, 
                         such as the contribution of each mechanism to the rainfall 
                         suppression, need further investigation. Regional climate model 
                         simulations with aircraft and radar measurements would help 
                         clarify these questions.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-15-6789-2015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-6789-2015",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Goncalves_Influence of biomass.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"