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@MastersThesis{Gonçalves:2015:CaVaSi,
               author = "Gon{\c{c}}alves, Jos{\'e} Paulo de Campos",
                title = "Caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o e variabilidade de 
                         situa{\c{c}}{\~o}es sin{\'o}ticas associadas a epis{\'o}dios 
                         de chuva intensa e chuva persistente durante a esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         chuvosa na regi{\~a}o sudeste do Brasil",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-08-17",
             keywords = "chuva intensa, chuva persistente, climatologia sin{\'o}tica, 
                         compostos, padr{\~o}es de circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o, heavy rainfall, 
                         persistent rainfall, synoptic climatology, composites analysis, 
                         circulation patterns.",
             abstract = "Este trabalho apresenta uma an{\'a}lise comparativa das 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas sin{\'o}ticas e da variabilidade dos 
                         padr{\~o}es de circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o associados a eventos de 
                         Chuva Intensa (CI) e Chuva Persistente (CP) na Regi{\~a}o Sudeste 
                         do Brasil (SEB). A sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos eventos utilizou dados 
                         de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o di{\'a}ria do \${{"}}\$PSD South 
                         America Daily Gridded Precipitation\${{"}}\$ durante a 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o chuvosa (outubro a mar{\c{c}}o), entre 1979 a 
                         2010. Para a an{\'a}lise dos campos sin{\'o}ticos utilizou-se os 
                         dados da rean{\'a}lise \${{"}}\$Climate Forecast System 
                         Reanalysis\${{"}}\$ (CFSR). O estudo baseia-se na an{\'a}lise 
                         de composi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de campos e de anomalias de 
                         vari{\'a}veis atmosf{\'e}ricas dos dias dos eventos de chuva. As 
                         an{\'a}lises dos \${{"}}\$Epis{\'o}dios de Chuvas 
                         Intensas\${{"}}\$ (ECI) e \${{"}}\$Epis{\'o}dios de Chuvas 
                         Persistentes\${{"}}\$ (ECP) consistem em sequencias temporais de 
                         campos dos respectivos epis{\'o}dios de chuva, desde tr{\^e}s 
                         dias antes do in{\'{\i}}cio e durante as chuvas, que permitiram 
                         avaliar a evolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o temporal das 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas associadas. A variabilidade dos 
                         padr{\~o}es de circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi investigada 
                         atrav{\'e}s da An{\'a}lise de Componentes Principais 
                         Rotacionadas (ACP) dos campos sequenciais de press{\~a}o reduzida 
                         ao n{\'{\i}}vel m{\'e}dio do mar dos ECI e ECP. A partir dos 
                         epis{\'o}dios altamente correlacionados com as respectivas 
                         componentes de ECI e ECP, foram geradas composi{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         denominadas como \${{"}}\$Padr{\~o}es de Sequ{\^e}ncias 
                         Principais\${{"}}\$ (PSP) que possibilitaram a 
                         identifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos principais modos de desenvolvimento 
                         dos sistemas associados a cada tipo de chuva. Os resultados 
                         mostraram que os eventos de CI ocorreram com maior frequ{\^e}ncia 
                         em outubro, enquanto que as CP t{\^e}m a sua m{\'a}xima 
                         frequ{\^e}ncia em janeiro. Os compostos para ambos os tipos de 
                         chuva apresentam semelhan{\c{c}}as nas caracter{\'{\i}}sticas e 
                         nos sistemas atmosf{\'e}ricos atuantes, sendo que a magnitude das 
                         anomalias {\'e} maior para os casos de CI em 
                         compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o aos de CP. Destacam-se como 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas comuns, o resfriamento na m{\'e}dia e 
                         baixa troposfera no sudeste da Am{\'e}rica do Sul (AS), a 
                         presen{\c{c}}a de {\'a}reas de baixa press{\~a}o sobre a SEB e 
                         oceano adjacente e de altas press{\~o}es ao sul de 40\$^{°}\$S, 
                         entre o Pac{\'{\i}}fico, sul do continente e Atl{\^a}ntico, 
                         associadas a um aquecimento da troposfera m{\'e}dia nestas 
                         {\'a}reas. O desenvolvimento dos ECI est{\'a} vinculado {\`a} 
                         propaga{\c{c}}{\~a}o de um trem de onda de maior amplitude, que 
                         favorece o desenvolvimento de dist{\'u}rbios sin{\'o}ticos mais 
                         vigorosos e que se deslocam desde a Argentina at{\'e} a SEB. Os 
                         ECP est{\~a}o associados a sistemas menos vigorosos que se 
                         desenvolvem ao sudeste da AS a partir da propaga{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         um trem de onda de maior extens{\~a}o longitudinal e com 
                         deslocamento mais lento. Os PSP ilustraram cinco padr{\~o}es de 
                         evolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos sistemas para cada tipo de chuva. Os PSP 
                         predominantes nos ECI s{\~a}o associados {\`a} incurs{\~a}o de 
                         sistemas frontais adjacentes {\`a} SEB e Atl{\^a}ntico, enquanto 
                         que os PSP de ECP ilustram processos frontais ou n{\~a}o frontais 
                         adjacentes {\`a} SEB, simult{\^a}neos {\`a} 
                         intensifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos anticiclones subtropicais do 
                         Pac{\'{\i}}fico e Atl{\^a}ntico ao sul de 40\$^{°}\$S, neste 
                         {\'u}ltimo vinculado a forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de um anticiclone de 
                         tipo bloqueio. ABSTRACT: This study presents a comparative 
                         analysis of characteristics and variability of atmospheric 
                         circulation patterns associated with heavy (HR) and persistent 
                         rainfall (PR) events over southeastern Brazil (SEB). The events 
                         have been selected using daily rainfall data \${{"}}\$PSD South 
                         America Daily Gridded Precipitation\${{"}}\$ during the SEB 
                         rainy season (October-March) from the 1979 to 2010 period. The 
                         synoptic features were analyzed by means of composites analysis of 
                         atmospheric variables using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 
                         (CFSR). The temporal evolution of the synoptic fields was 
                         evaluated three days in advance and during the precipitation 
                         episodes, using composites of sequential fields. Those episodes 
                         are named as \${{"}}\$Persistent Rainfall Episodes\${{"}}\$ 
                         (PRE) and \${{"}}\$Heavy Rainfall Episodes\${{"}}\$ (HRE). The 
                         HRE and PRE were also employed to identify the Principal Sequence 
                         Patterns (PSP) that illustrates the development of synoptic 
                         systems, by applying the Rotated Principal Component Analysis 
                         (PCA) in the respective HRE and PRE sequential mean sea level 
                         pressure fields. Episodes higher correlated with PSPs were used to 
                         produce composites of atmospheric variables in order to 
                         characterize each typical circulation pattern. Results showed that 
                         HR (PR) events occurs especially in October (January). Composites 
                         pointed similar synoptic features in both types (intense and 
                         persistent) of rainfall events. However, the anomalies associated 
                         with HR are greater than PR events. Some features are common in 
                         both types of events, as the cooling in the middle and lower 
                         tropospheric levels over southeastern South America (SA), the low 
                         surface pressure centers over SEB and the adjacent ocean, high 
                         pressure systems south of 40\$^{°}\$S associated with warming at 
                         middle and lower troposphere. HRE episodes are related to higher 
                         amplitude wave trains progression, thus linked to more intense 
                         synoptic systems moving from Argentina to SEB. PRE episodes are 
                         associated with weaker systems over southeastern South America 
                         linked to slower and larger wave trains propagation. Five PSPs for 
                         each type of rainfall episode was obtained. The main synoptic 
                         process shown in the HRE PSP s are associated to frontal systems 
                         progression over SEB and the Atlantic Ocean. The PRE PSP s are 
                         linked to frontal or non-frontal processes over the Atlantic Ocean 
                         near SEB, simultaneous to Pacific anticyclone intensification 
                         around 40\${°}\$S and/or blocking anticyclones over the Atlantic 
                         Ocean.",
            committee = "Herdies, Dirceu Luis (presidente) and Seluchi, Marcelo Enrique 
                         (orientador) and Dolif Neto, Giovanni",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Characteristics and variability of synoptic situations associated 
                         with heavy rainfall and persistent rainfall episodes during the 
                         rainy season in southeastern Brazil",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "165",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3JR8FG5",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3JR8FG5",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"
}


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