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@MastersThesis{Pinto:2015:DeDeSu,
               author = "Pinto, Carolina de Athayde",
                title = "Detec{\c{c}}{\~a}o de deforma{\c{c}}{\~o}es superficiais na 
                         Mina do Mangan{\^e}s do Azul atrav{\'e}s da interferometria de 
                         radar orbital",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-08-25",
             keywords = "TerraSAR-X, interferometria SAR diferencial, Mina de Mangan{\^e}s 
                         do Azul, prov{\'{\i}}ncia mineral de Caraj{\'a}s, regi{\~a}o 
                         Amaz{\^o}nica, differential SAR interferometry, open pit 
                         manganese mine, Caraj{\'a}s province, Amazon region.",
             abstract = "A Mina do Azul, inserida na Prov{\'{\i}}ncia Mineral de 
                         Caraj{\'a}s, regi{\~a}o Amaz{\^o}nica, {\'e} a mina de 
                         mangan{\^e}s a c{\'e}u aberto mais importante do Brasil. A Vale 
                         S.A. opera na {\'a}rea com tr{\^e}s cavas simultaneamente (minas 
                         1, 2 e 3), que s{\~a}o associadas a produtos de rochas de 
                         altera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de baixa qualidade geomec{\^a}nica com 
                         arenitos, siltitos e coberturas later{\'{\i}}ticas da 
                         Forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'A}guas Claras. Com o intuito de monitorar 
                         poss{\'{\i}}veis deforma{\c{c}}{\~o}es no terreno, foram 
                         utilizadas na investiga{\c{c}}{\~a}o 33 imagens TerraSAR-X 
                         (TSX-1), no formato StripMap, que abrangem o per{\'{\i}}odo de 
                         20 mar{\c{c}}o de 2012 a 4 abril de 2013. As cenas foram 
                         processadas utilizando duas abordagens interferom{\'e}tricas: 
                         DInSAR Convencional (Interferometria SAR Diferencial) e DInSAR 
                         Avan{\c{c}}ada. As abordagens DInSAR Avan{\c{c}}ada empregadas 
                         s{\~a}o baseadas na Interferometria por Espalhadores Persistentes 
                         (PSI) e DInSAR Times Series. Os resultados mostraram que a maior 
                         parte das minas pode ser considerada est{\'a}vel no 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo de cobertura de aquisi{\c{c}}{\~a}o das imagens 
                         SAR. No entanto, as maiores taxas de deforma{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram 
                         detectadas nas pilhas de est{\'e}ril, provavelmente relacionadas 
                         a mecanismos de recalque, e tamb{\'e}m ao longo dos taludes do 
                         flanco norte da Mina 1, indicando movimentos em 
                         dire{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao centro da mina. Nesse setor da mina, a 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial das estruturas geol{\'o}gicas com os 
                         PS mostrou que as maiores taxas de deforma{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         est{\~a}o concentradas ao longo do corredor de 
                         deforma{\c{c}}{\~a}o composto por falhas, fraturas e dobras, 
                         relacionado ao Sistema de Falhas Caraj{\'a}s. Medidas de radar de 
                         campo de um curto per{\'{\i}}odo de cobertura do TSX-1, para as 
                         paredes das bancadas do flanco sul da Mina 1, mostraram que o 
                         padr{\~a}o de deforma{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos PS {\'e} concordante 
                         com as medidas geot{\'e}cnicas de campo. Assim, a 
                         investiga{\c{c}}{\~a}o enfatizou a import{\^a}ncia que a DInSAR 
                         orbital pode ter no monitoramento da deforma{\c{c}}{\~a}o e na 
                         avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos riscos nesse tipo de 
                         minera{\c{c}}{\~a}o. ABSTRACT: The Azul mining complex, located 
                         in the Caraj{\'a}s Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses 
                         the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company 
                         operates in the area three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 
                         and 3), which are conducted on rock alteration products of low 
                         geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones and a 
                         lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 
                         TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 
                         2012- April 2013 were used in the investigation. The scenes were 
                         processed based on two interferometric approaches: the 
                         Conventional DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar 
                         Interferometry) and the Advanced DInSAR (A-DInSAR). A-DInSAR 
                         approaches based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) 
                         analysis and DInSAR Times Series were used and these results 
                         showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time 
                         span of the SAR acquisitions. However, a high deformation rates 
                         were mapped over a waste pile, probable related to settlements, 
                         and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope 
                         movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of 
                         geological structures with Persistent Scatterers (PS) was observed 
                         for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates 
                         concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures 
                         and folds related to the Caraj{\'a}s Fault system. Despite only 
                         ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time 
                         period of the TSX-1 coverage, for wall benches along the south 
                         flank of mine 1, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with 
                         geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the 
                         important role that satellite-based DInSAR can play for 
                         deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining 
                         area.",
            committee = "Paradella, Waldir Renato (presidente/orientador) and Mura, 
                         Jos{\'e} Claudio (orientador) and Gama, F{\'a}bio Furlan and 
                         Silva, Arnaldo de Queiroz da",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Detection of surface displacements in the Azul open pit manganese 
                         mine by using synthetic aperture radar interferometry",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "193",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3JUHDQH",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3JUHDQH",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"
}


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