author = "Balan, Nanan and Skoug, R. and Sudarsanam, Tulasi Ram and Rajesh, 
                         P. K. and Shiokawa, Kazuo and Otsuka, Yuichi and Batista, Inez 
                         Staciarini and Ebihara, Yusuke and Omura, Yoshiharu and Nakamura, 
          affiliation = "{Nagoya University} and {Los Alamos National Laboratory} and 
                         {Indian Institute of Geomagnetism} and {National Cheng Kung 
                         University} and {Nagoya University} and {Solar-Terrestrial 
                         Environment Laboratory} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Kyoto University} and {Kyoto University} 
                         and {National Institute of Polar Research}",
                title = "Severe space weather including historical events",
                 year = "2015",
         organization = "Annual Meetings Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS)",
             abstract = "Thanks to the work of a number of scientists starting with 
                         Carrington [1859] it is known that severe space weather can 
                         causeextensive social and economic disruptions in the modern 
                         high-tech society. It is therefore important to understand what 
                         determines the severity of space weather, and whether it can be 
                         predicted. We present the results obtained from the analysis of 
                         coronal mass ejections (CME), solar energetic particle (SEP) 
                         events, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), CME-magnetosphere 
                         coupling and geomagnetic storms associated with the major space 
                         weather events since 1998 by combining data from the ACE and GOES 
                         satellites with geomagnetic parameters, and the Carrington event 
                         of 1859, the Quebec event of 1989, and an event in 1958. The 
                         results seem to indicate that (1) it is the impulsive energy 
                         mainly due to the impulsive velocity and orientation of IMF Bz at 
                         the leading edge of the CMEs (or CME front) that determine the 
                         severity of space weather. (2) CMEs having high impulsive velocity 
                         (sudden non-fluctuating increase by over 275 km s-1 over the 
                         background) caused severe space weather (SvSW) effects in ACE 
                         (failure of the SWI mode of SWEPAM in ACE). (3) The impact of such 
                         CMEs which also show the IMF Bz southward from the leading edge 
                         caused SvSW at the Earth including extreme geomagnetic storms of 
                         mean DstMP < -250 nT during main phases; and the known electric 
                         power outages happened during some of these SvSW events. (4) The 
                         higher the impulsive velocity, the more severe the space weather, 
                         like faster weather fronts and tsunami fronts causing more severe 
                         damages through impulsive action. (5) The CMEs having IMF Bz 
                         northward at the leading edge do not seem to cause SvSW on Earth 
                         though, later when the IMF Bz turns southward, they can lead to 
                         super geomagnetic storms of intensity (DstMin) less than even -400 
  conference-location = "Singapore",
      conference-year = "2-7 Aug.",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"