author = "Kherani, Esfhan Alam and Rolland, L. and Lognonne, Philippe and 
                         Sladen, A. and Paula, Eurico Rodrigues de",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and {} 
                         and {} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Traveling ionosphere disturbances excited ahead of the Tohoku-Oki 
                         tsunami: a case study",
                 year = "2015",
         organization = "International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, 14.",
             abstract = "We document two kinds of traveling ionospheric disturbances, 
                         namely, CTIDs (Co-tsunami-TravelingIonospheric-disturbances) and 
                         related to the Tohoku-Oki tsunami of 11 March 2011. They are, 
                         respectively, referred to the disturbances that remain behind and 
                         ahead of the principal tsunami wave-front. We first note their 
                         presence in a numerical experiment performed using a simulation 
                         code coupling the tsunami, atmosphere and ionosphere. This code 
                         uses the tsunami wave-field as an input and simulates 
                         Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and TIDs, in the 
                         form of total electron content (TEC) disturbance, in the 
                         ionosphere. The simulated TEC reveals the excitation of CTIDs (at 
                         about 2 TECU) and ETIDs (at about 1 TECU), representing up to 5% 
                         disturbance over the ambient electron density, and they arise from 
                         the dissipation of the AGWs in the thermosphere. A novel outcome 
                         is that the strong ETIDs are excited about 20-60 minutes earlier 
                         (than the tsunami arrival time) at a location which is about 3o 
                         -10o ahead of the instantaneous location of the principal tsunami 
                         wave-front. Simulation results are compared with the far-field 
                         observations using GNSS satellites and in both, ETIDs are 
                         identified as the secondary TEC maximum, occurring 20-40 minutes 
                         before the tsunami arrival while the primary TEC maximum 
                         representing the CTIDs occurs 10-45 minutes after the tsunami 
                         arrival. The ETIDs reported in this study are a new kind of TIDs 
                         whose characteristics can be potentially used for the early 
                         warning of the tsunami.",
  conference-location = "Rio de Janeiro, RJ",
      conference-year = "3-6 Aug.",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"