author = "Ruffini, R. and Izzo, L. and Bianco, C. L. and Rueda, J. A. and 
                         Barbarino, C. and Dereli, H. and Enderli, M. and Muccino, M. and 
                         Penacchioni, Ana Virg{\'{\i}}nia and Pisani, G. B. and Wang, 
          affiliation = "{Sapienza Universita di Roma} and {Sapienza Universita di Roma} 
                         and {Sapienza Universita di Roma} and {Sapienza Universita di 
                         Roma} and {Sapienza Universita di Roma} and {Universite de Nice 
                         Sophia Antipolis} and {Sapienza Universita di Roma} and {Sapienza 
                         Universita di Roma} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Sapienza Universita di Roma} and {Sapienza Universita 
                         di Roma}",
                title = "Induced gravitational collapse in the BATSE era: the case of GRB 
              journal = "Astronomy Reports",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "59",
               number = "7",
                pages = "626--638",
                month = "July",
             abstract = "Following the recently established {"}Binary-driven HyperNova{"} 
                         (BdHN) model, we here interpret GRB 970828 in terms of the four 
                         episodes typical of such a model. The {"}Episode 1,{"} up to 40 s 
                         after the trigger time t (0), with a time varying thermal emission 
                         and a total energy of E-iso,E-1st = 2.60 x 10(53) erg, is 
                         interpreted as due to the onset of an hyper-critical accretion 
                         process onto a companion neutron star, triggered by the companion 
                         star, an FeCO core undergoing a SN explosion. The {"}Episode 2,{"} 
                         observed up t (0) + 90 s, is interpreted as a canonical gamma ray 
                         burst, with an energy of erg, a baryon load of B = 7x 10(-3) and a 
                         bulk Lorentz factor at transparency of G = 142.5. From this 
                         Episode 2, we infer that the GRB exploded in an environment with a 
                         large average particle density aOE (c) n > a parts per thousand 
                         103 particles/cm(3) and dense clouds characterized by typical 
                         dimensions of (4-8) x 10(14) cm and delta n/n similar to 10. The 
                         {"}Episode 3{"} is identified from t (0) +90 s all the way up to 
                         10(5-6) s: despite the paucity of the early X-ray data, typical in 
                         the BATSE, pre-Swift era, we find extremely significant data 
                         points in the late X-ray afterglow emission of GRB 970828, which 
                         corresponds to the ones observed in all BdHNe sources. The 
                         {"}Episode 4,{"} related to the Supernova emission, does not 
                         appear to be observable in this source, due to the presence of 
                         darkening from the large density of the GRB environment, also 
                         inferred from the analysis of the Episode 2.",
                  doi = "10.1134/S1063772915070094",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063772915070094",
                 issn = "1063-7729",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "26 jan. 2021"