author = "Amorim Neto, Alcides de Castro and Satyamurty, Prakki and 
                         Correira, Francis Wagner",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Amaz{\^o}nicas (INPA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Some observed characteristics of frontal systems in the Amazon 
              journal = "Meteorological Applications",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "22",
               number = "3",
                pages = "617--635",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "forecasting, hydro-meteorology.",
             abstract = "The precipitation and the subsequent decline in temperature at 
                         Manaus (3 degrees S, 60 degrees W) associated with strong cold 
                         frontal passages occur 1-3 days after those effects are observed 
                         at SAo Paulo (23 degrees S, 46 degrees S). The average rainfall of 
                         40.4mmday(-1) on the day of frontal passage over the Amazon Basin 
                         is substantially higher than that on the preceding and succeeding 
                         days. The decline in maximum temperature of about 8 degrees C in 
                         48 h is much greater than the decline in minimum temperature (3 
                         degrees C) observed at Manaus. The development of an inverted 
                         trough in the lower troposphere over the continent in the 
                         subtropics strengthens the southerly winds and makes them reach 
                         the Amazon Basin. The extratropical synoptic-scale trough at 925 
                         hPa level, associated with cold front over the Amazon Basin in the 
                         South Atlantic moves from 40 degrees W to 25 degrees W in 2 days. 
                         The vertical westward tilt of the anomalous low is about 12 
                         degrees longitude from 925 hPa to 200 hPa. The rainfall has no 
                         correlation with either the temperature or the decline in 
                         temperature associated with fronts in the Amazon Basin. During 
                         cold frontal events, especially in winter cases, the transport of 
                         moisture from the Amazon Basin to the south is either weak or 
                         absent. The differences between winter and summer cases are large 
                         in terms of precipitation, temperature, wind anomalies and 
                         eastward and northward movements of the synoptic system.",
                  doi = "10.1002/met.1497",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/met.1497",
                 issn = "1350-4827",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "amorim neto_some.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"