author = "Garcia, S{\^a}mia R. and Kayano, Mary Toshie",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Itajub{\'a} (UNIFEI)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Multidecadal variability of moisture and heat budgets of the South 
                         American monsoon system",
              journal = "Theoretical and Applied Climatology",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "121",
               number = "3/4",
                pages = "557--570",
                month = "Aug.",
             abstract = "The variability of sources or sinks of moisture and heat for the 
                         South American monsoon system (SAMS) region is investigated for 
                         the 19581995 period. So, moisture and heat budget equations are 
                         applied to data from the National Centers for Environmental 
                         Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture 
                         and heat are the equation residues and are referred to as residue 
                         and diabatic terms, respectively. Using empirical orthogonal 
                         function (EOF) analysis, the dominant variability modes of these 
                         terms are obtained for the study period, with the monthly 
                         anomalies of the residue and diabatic terms employed. For residue 
                         EOF01, negative (positive) principal component (PC01) values 
                         correspond to positive (negative) residue anomalies over tropical 
                         South America (TSAM), which indicate a moisture source (sink) 
                         before (after) 1976, cold (warm) phase of the Pacific Decadal 
                         Oscillation (PDO). For the EOF01 of the diabatic term, negative 
                         (positive) PC01 values correspond to negative (positive) diabatic 
                         anomalies over TSAM, indicating a heat sink (source) before 
                         (after) 1976. Thus, a moisture source (sink) and a heat sink 
                         (source) occur over TSAM before (after) 1976. These findings are 
                         corroborated by composite analysis of the anomalies of 
                         precipitable water, 850 hPa air temperature, 500 hPa vertical 
                         pressure velocity, vertically integrated moisture flux (VIMF), 
                         VIMF divergence, and precipitation. In terms of system 
                         thermodynamics, these composites are indicative of SAMS weakening 
                         (strengthening) before (after) 1976, cold (warm) PDO phase.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00704-014-1265-1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1265-1",
                 issn = "0177-798X",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "garcia_multidecadal.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"