author = "Schrijver, Carolous J. and Kauristie, Kirsti and Aylward, Alan D. 
                         and Denardini, Clezio Marcos and Gibson, Sarah E. and Gloverf, 
                         Alexi and Gopalswamy, Nat and Grande, Manuel and Hapgood, Mike and 
                         Heynderickx, Daniel and Jakowski, Norbert and Kalegaev, Vladimir 
                         V. and Lapenta, Giovanni and Linker, Jon A. and Liu, Siqing and 
                         Mandrini, Cristina H. and Mann, Ian R. and Nagatsuma, Tsutomu and 
                         Nandy, Dibyendu and Obara, Takahiro and O’Brien, Paul and Onsager, 
                         Terrance and Opgenoorth, Hermann J. and Terkildsen, Michael and 
                         Valladares, Cesar E. and Vilmer, Nicole",
          affiliation = "{Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory} and {Finnish 
                         Meteorological Institute} and {University College London} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and HAO/NCAR 
                         and {RHEA System; ESA SSA Programme Office} and {NASA Goddard 
                         Space Flight Center} and {University of Aberystwyth} and {RAL 
                         Space} and {DH Consultancy BVBA} and {German Aerospace Center} and 
                         {Lomonosov Moscow State University} and {KU Leuven} and 
                         {Predictive Science Inc.} and {Chinese Academy of Sciences} and 
                         {Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio} and {University 
                         Alberta} and {Space Weather and Environment Informatics Lab.} and 
                         {Center for Excellence in Space Sciences and Indian Institute of 
                         Science} and {Tohoku University} and {Aerospace Corporation} and 
                         {NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center} and {Swedish Institute of 
                         Space Physics} and {Bureau of Meteorology} and {Boston College} 
                         and LESIA, Observatoire de Paris",
                title = "Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map 
                         for 2015–2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS",
              journal = "Advances in Space Research",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "55",
               number = "12",
                pages = "2745--2807",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Space weather, COSPAR/ILWS road map panel.",
             abstract = "There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions 
                         that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure 
                         that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that 
                         comes the need to better shield society against space weather by 
                         improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and 
                         infrastructure design. We recognize that much progress has been 
                         made and continues to be made with a powerful suite of research 
                         observatories on the ground and in space, forming the basis of a 
                         SunEarth system observatory. But the domain of space weather is 
                         vast extending from deep within the Sun to far outside the 
                         planetary orbits and the physics complex including couplings 
                         between various types of physical processes that link scales and 
                         domains from the microscopic to large parts of the solar system. 
                         Consequently, advanced understanding of space weather requires a 
                         coordinated international approach to effectively provide 
                         awareness of the processes within the SunEarth system through 
                         observation-driven models. This roadmap prioritizes the scientific 
                         focus areas and research infrastructure that are needed to 
                         significantly advance our understanding of space weather of all 
                         intensities and of its implications for society. Advancement of 
                         the existing system observatory through the addition of small to 
                         moderate state-of-the-art capabilities designed to fill 
                         observational gaps will enable significant advances. Such a 
                         strategy requires urgent action: key instrumentation needs to be 
                         sustained, and action needs to be taken before core capabilities 
                         are lost in the aging ensemble. We recommend advances through 
                         priority focus (1) on observation-based modeling throughout the 
                         SunEarth system, (2) on forecasts more than 12 h ahead of the 
                         magnetic structure of incoming coronal mass ejections, (3) on 
                         understanding the geospace response to variable solar-wind 
                         stresses that lead to intense geomagnetically-induced currents and 
                         ionospheric and radiation storms, and (4) on developing a 
                         comprehensive specification of space climate, including the 
                         characterization of extreme space storms to guide resilient and 
                         robust engineering of technological infrastructures. The roadmap 
                         clusters its implementation recommendations by formulating three 
                         action pathways, and outlines needed instrumentation and research 
                         programs and infrastructure for each of these. An executive 
                         summary provides an overview of all recommendations.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023",
                 issn = "0273-1177 and 1879-1948",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "schrijver_understanding.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"