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@Article{AzevedoAndrCost:2015:FlCoCo,
               author = "Azevedo, Cl{\'a}udia Gon{\c{c}}alves de and Andrade, Jos{\'e} 
                         Carlos de and Costa, Fernando de Souza",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Flameless compact combustion system for burning hydrous ethanol",
              journal = "Energy",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "89",
                pages = "158--167",
                month = "Sept.",
             keywords = "Flameless combustion, Alternative liquid fuels, Biofuel, Hydrous 
                         ethanol.",
             abstract = "Environmental concerns and uncertainties in oil supply motivate 
                         the development of new combustion technologies using biofuels. 
                         Flameless combustion is a promising technology capable of 
                         operating with high thermal efficiency, reduced pollutant 
                         emissions and low operational costs. This work presents an 
                         experimental study of a flameless compact combustion system for 
                         burning hydrous ethanol, 96% v/v using a blurry injector to 
                         atomize the fuel. Relatively uniform sprays with small droplets 
                         and narrow cone angles were obtained, favoring the operation of 
                         the flameless combustor. The flameless combustion regime was 
                         observed under several operational conditions, through the 
                         determination of temperature profiles and fluegas composition. For 
                         a 2 kW thermal input, the flameless regime occurred with excess 
                         air coefficients 1.652.45, temperatures 690921 C, NOx emissions 
                         2.553.08 ppm and UHC (unburned hydrocarbons) emissions 1.431.10 
                         ppm. For a 4 kW thermal input, the flameless regime occurred with 
                         excess air coefficients 1.211.80, temperatures 8101002 C, NOx 
                         emissions 1.982.16 ppm and UHC emissions 1.532.25 ppm. The 
                         temperature profiles measured during the flameless regime were 
                         relatively homogeneous inside the combustion chamber with very low 
                         emissions, compared to the conventional flame regime.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.049",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.049",
                 issn = "0360-5442",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "azevedo_flameless.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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