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@PhDThesis{Franša:2015:FaMeSi,
               author = "Fran{\c{c}}a, Enrique Klai de",
                title = "Fabrica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de membranas de sil{\'{\i}}cio e estudo 
                         do efeito do nitreto de ni{\'o}bio sobre o fator de qualidade 
                         el{\'e}trico nos transdutores do detector Mario Schenberg",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-11-16",
             keywords = "sil{\'{\i}}cio, ni{\'o}bio, cavidades ressonantes, 
                         implanta{\c{c}}{\~a}o i{\^o}nica, fator Q, silicon, niobium, 
                         cavity resonators, ion implantation, Q factors.",
             abstract = "Visando aprimorar o sistema de transdu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do Detector 
                         de Ondas Gravitacionais Mario Schenberg, foram fabricadas 
                         membranas de sil{\'{\i}}cio com espessuras de 18, 23 e 29 
                         \$\mu\$m, e regi{\~o}es espessas centrais da ordem de 2,5 e 3 
                         mm de lado. O processo de fabrica{\c{c}}{\~a}o destas membranas 
                         consistiu em etapas de fabrica{\c{c}}{\~a}o como 
                         Oxida{\c{c}}{\~a}o t{\'e}rmica, Litografia {\'o}tica e 
                         Corros{\~a}o qu{\'{\i}}mica em KOH. As membranas foram 
                         caracterizadas pela Divis{\~a}o de Astrof{\'{\i}}sica do INPE 
                         (DAS/INPE) para uso na segunda gera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de transdutores 
                         do Detector de Ondas gravitacionais \emph{Mario Schenberg}. As 
                         dimens{\~o}es levaram, portanto, a raz{\~o}es aspecto/espessura 
                         bastante grandes. Tamb{\'e}m foram fabricadas outras membranas de 
                         sil{\'{\i}}cio para uso numa nova gera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         transdutores do Detector \emph{Mario Schenberg}. Foram obtidas 
                         membranas com espessuras de 38 e 44 \$\mu\$m com o uso do 
                         reator de corros{\~a}o \emph{Atlas Potassium} adquirido para 
                         este fim. Neste caso, o processo de fabrica{\c{c}}{\~a}o destas 
                         membranas envolveu apenas o processo de Corros{\~a}o 
                         qu{\'{\i}}mica em KOH. Em outra frente, cavidades reentrantes 
                         feitas de ni{\'o}bio 99,9\% do tipo \${''}\$klystron\${''}\$ 
                         foram usinadas e testadas criogenicamente para 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o das frequ{\^e}ncias de resson{\^a}ncias 
                         el{\'e}tricas e dos fatores Q n{\~a}o-carregados (Q\$_{eo}\$) 
                         em fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o do acoplament eletromagn{\'e}tico. As 
                         amostras foram submetidas a um tratamento superficial que envolveu 
                         processos qu{\'{\i}}micos/f{\'{\i}}sicos com {\'a}cidos, 
                         sputtering de arg{\^o}nio e implanta{\c{c}}{\~a}o i{\^o}nica 
                         por imers{\~a}o em plasma (3IP) de nitrog{\^e}nio. Com este 
                         tratamento superficial foram obtidos fatores Q n{\~a}o-carregados 
                         (Q\$_{eo}\$) de 1,14.10\$^{4}\$ e 2,52.10\$^{5}\$ em 4,2 K. 
                         Estes resultados indicaram um aumento significativo no efeito da 
                         supercondutividade nas cavidades ap{\'o}s terem sido fortemente 
                         atacadas pela mistura concentrada de {\'a}cidos e ap{\'o}s 
                         sofrerem implanta{\c{c}}{\~o}es seguidas de nitrog{\^e}nio. 
                         Espera-se obter em trabalhos futuros Qeos superiores a 
                         3,0.10\$^{5}\$ em 4,2 K atrav{\'e}s da utiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         de ni{\'o}bio de alta pureza e de um tratamento superficial 
                         adequado. Estas cavidades com alto Qeo j{\'a} se encontram 
                         instaladas e em fase de testes no Detector de Ondas Gravitacionais 
                         Mario Schenberg. ABSTRACT: In order to improve the transduction 
                         system of the \emph{Mario Schenberg} Detector, Silicon membranes 
                         were manufactured with thicknesses of 18, 23, and 29 \$\mu\$m, 
                         and thicker central regions with sides of the order of 2.5 to 3 
                         mm. The manufacturing process for these membranes consisted of 
                         manufacturing steps such as thermal oxidation, optical lithography 
                         and chemical etching with KOH. The membranes were characterized by 
                         the Astrophysics Division of INPE (DAS / INPE) for use in the 
                         second generation of the transducers of the gravitational wave 
                         detector \emph{Mario Schenberg}. The dimensions led, therefore, 
                         to large aspect/thickness ratios. Other Silicon membranes were 
                         also made for use in a new generation of the transducers of the 
                         \emph{Mario Schenberg} detector. Membranes were obtained with 
                         thicknesses of 38 and 44 \$\mu\$m using the \emph{Atlas 
                         Potassium} etching reactor acquired for this purpose. In this 
                         case, the manufacturing process of membranes involved only the 
                         process of chemical etching with KOH. On another front, 
                         \${''}\$Klystron\${''}\$ type reentrant cavities made of 
                         Niobium 99.9\% were machined and tested cryogenically to 
                         determine the electrical resonance frequencies and unloaded 
                         electrical Q factors (Q\$_{eo}\$) as a function of 
                         electromagnetic coupling. The samples were subjected to a surface 
                         treatment involving chemical/physical processes with acids, argon 
                         ion sputtering and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation 
                         (3IP). With this surface treatment unloaded Q factors 
                         (Q\$_{eo}\$) of 1.14.10\$^{4}\$ and 2.52.10\$^{5}\$ in 4.2 K 
                         were obtained. These results indicated a significant increase in 
                         the effect of superconductivity after the cavity walls have been 
                         heavily attacked by a concentrated acid mixture and after they 
                         have suffered successive nitrogen deployments. Higher values of 
                         the Q\$_{eo}\$ \${'}\$S\$\approx\$ 3,0.10\$^{5}\$ in 4.2 
                         K, in future work, are expected to be obtained using high purity 
                         Niobium with a suitable surface treatment. These cavities, with 
                         high Q\$_{eo}\$, are already installed and being tested in 
                         Gravitational Wave Detector \emph{Mario Schenberg}.",
            committee = "Beloto, Antonio Fernando (presidente/orientador) and Aguiar, 
                         Odylio Denys de (orientador) and Mello, Carina Barros and 
                         Oliveira, Rog{\'e}rio de Moraes and Ribeiro, Kilder Leite and 
                         Kostov, Leide Lili Gon{\c{c}}alves da Silva",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Fabrication of Silicon membranes and study of the effect of 
                         niobium nitride on eletrical quality factor in the transducers of 
                         the Mario Schenberg detector",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "102",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3KFLKDH",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3KFLKDH",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "03 dez. 2020"
}


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