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@MastersThesis{Barbosa:2015:PrUtMé,
               author = "Barbosa, Adilson Luiz",
                title = "Proposta de utiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de m{\'e}todos 
                         heur{\'{\i}}sticos e de inova{\c{c}}{\~a}o nos projetos de 
                         sistemas de localiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o, baseados em tecnologia de 
                         sat{\'e}lites",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-11-23",
             keywords = "GPS, PCD, Ionosfera, GPS, PCD, Ionosphere.",
             abstract = "Neste trabalho aplica-se um m{\'e}todo de gera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         inova{\c{c}}{\~a}o a dois problemas: a) elimina{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         ou minimiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de erros ionosf{\'e}ricos na 
                         navega{\c{c}}{\~a}o GPS (Global Positioning System), e b) a 
                         adapta{\c{c}}{\~a}o do sistema de coleta de dados do INPE para o 
                         uso de nanossat{\'e}lites no lugar dos SCDs (Sat{\'e}lites de 
                         Coleta de Dados) e CBERS (China-Brasil Earth Resources Satellite). 
                         Neste {\'u}ltimo caso h{\'a} a necessidade de compensar erros 
                         ionosf{\'e}ricos maiores, devido a uma frequ{\^e}ncia mais baixa 
                         que a do GPS, a quest{\~a}o do custo m{\'{\i}}nimo de 
                         modifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o das PCDs, e de menor disponibilidade de 
                         energia nos nanossat{\'e}lites. O m{\'e}todo combina TRIZ 
                         (Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problem), Matriz de Pugh e 
                         AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). A TRIZ {\'e} um m{\'e}todo 
                         heur{\'{\i}}stico de inova{\c{c}}{\~a}o criado por Genrich 
                         Saulovich Altshuller para problemas de engenharia, que tamb{\'e}m 
                         tem o objetivo de minimizar o uso de recursos na 
                         solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do problema. A matriz de Pugh {\'e} um 
                         m{\'e}todo de sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o sequencial para problemas 
                         complexos, onde tanto as especifica{\c{c}}{\~o}es como as 
                         alternativas de solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o n{\~a}o s{\~a}o bem 
                         conhecidas, no in{\'{\i}}cio do processo. O AHP {\'e} um 
                         m{\'e}todo de sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o multicrit{\'e}rio que usa 
                         compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o de pares de solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es para obter 
                         pesos na avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, e tamb{\'e}m possui controle de 
                         qualidade atrav{\'e}s de autovalores de suas matrizes de 
                         compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Este controle de qualidade torna o 
                         m{\'e}todo robusto, no sentido de que o mesmo indica se a 
                         sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'e} ou n{\~a}o confi{\'a}vel e, em 
                         decorr{\^e}ncia, torna qualquer tentativa de 
                         manipula{\c{c}}{\~a}o mais dif{\'{\i}}cil. Com este 
                         m{\'e}todo dez novas solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram encontradas para 
                         o problema do GPS, e outras doze para o caso das PCDs. Foram 
                         encontradas tr{\^e}s solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es aparentemente muito 
                         eficazes e inovadoras para o problema do GPS e tr{\^e}s 
                         solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es de mesmas caracter{\'{\i}}sticas para o 
                         caso das PCDs. As metodologias s{\~a}o descritas em detalhes na 
                         revis{\~a}o bibliogr{\'a}fica, assim como alguns detalhes de 
                         funcionamento do GPS e sistema de PCDs. Esta revis{\~a}o 
                         tamb{\'e}m descreve os efeitos ionosf{\'e}ricos sobre os sinais 
                         de radiofrequ{\^e}ncia. Os subsistemas de aeronaves e 
                         nanossat{\'e}lites foram sendo descritos com o desenvolvimento do 
                         m{\'e}todo, {\`a} medida que se mostraram relevantes ao 
                         processo. As op{\c{c}}{\~o}es por TRIZ, Matriz de Pugh e AHP 
                         foram realizadas ap{\'o}s uma ampla pesquisa bibliogr{\'a}fica 
                         quanto a m{\'e}todos heur{\'{\i}}sticos de solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         inovadoras e de sele{\c{c}}{\~a}o multicrit{\'e}rio. O mais 
                         importante em um processo de busca de inova{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'e} 
                         a eficiente explora{\c{c}}{\~a}o do espa{\c{c}}o de 
                         solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es e sua capacidade de: evitar a 
                         ado{\c{c}}{\~a}o precipitada de qualquer solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         realmente encontrar solu{\c{c}}{\~o}es eficazes e evitar 
                         detalhamentos desnecess{\'a}rios para redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         custo do processo. O processo escolhido se mostrou capaz de 
                         cumprir estes itens nos dois problemas. As tentativas de resolver 
                         um problema antes de conhec{\^e}-lo completamente gera um alto 
                         risco de se resolver o problema errado. A matriz de Pugh, 
                         associada com o TRIZ, ajudou a resolver contradi{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         mais simples no in{\'{\i}}cio do processo, facilitando o 
                         conhecimento mais amplo do problema antes de se partir para a 
                         utiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o do AHP na solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o definitiva. 
                         ABSTRACT: This work applies an innovation generation heuristic 
                         method to two problems: a) the mitigation or elimination of 
                         ionospheric errors in GPS (Global Positioning System) navigation; 
                         and b) the adaptation of the INPE data collection system to the 
                         use of nanossatelites in replacement of SCDs (Data Collection 
                         Satellite) and CBERS (China-Brasil Earth Resources Satellite). In 
                         this last case there is the need to compensate larger ionospheric 
                         errors, due to a lower frequency than the GPS, the question of 
                         minimum cost of PCDs modification, and a smaller energy 
                         availability in nanossatelites. The method combines TRIZ (Theory 
                         of the Solution of Inventive Problems) Pugh matrix and AHP 
                         (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The TRIZ is an innovation heuristic 
                         method created by Genrich Saulovich Altshuller for engineering 
                         problems, that also has the goal of minimizing the use of 
                         resources in the problem solution. The Pugh Matrix is a method of 
                         sequential selection to complex problems, where both, the 
                         specification and solution alternatives are not well known in the 
                         beginning of the process. The AHP is a Multiple Criteria Decision 
                         Making method that use pairwise comparisons to obtain weights and 
                         solution evaluation, and also has a quality control by means of 
                         the eigenvalues of its pairwise comparison matrices. This quality 
                         control turns the method a robust one, as it indicates the 
                         reliability of the selection, and therefore turns any manipulation 
                         trial more difficult. With this method ten new solutions were 
                         found to the GPS problem, and another twelve to the PCD case. It 
                         seems that three solutions found to the GPS case are innovative 
                         and effectives, as well as three solutions found to the PCD case. 
                         The methodologies were described in detail in the literature 
                         revision chapter together with GPS and SCD systems operation 
                         details. This chapter also studies signal radiopropagation in the 
                         ionosphere. Aircraft and nanossatelites subsystems were described 
                         along the method application, as soon as they showed themselves 
                         relevant to the process. The option for TRIZ, Pugh Matrix and AHP 
                         were done after an extensive bibliographical research regarding 
                         heuristic methods for innovative solutions search and Multiple 
                         Criteria Decision Making. The most important aspect of an 
                         innovation search method is the efficient sweeping of the solution 
                         space and its capacity in avoiding: precipitated adoption of any 
                         solution, really finding the effective solutions, and avoiding 
                         unnecessary detailing, this latter to reducing the process costs. 
                         The chosen process showed itself able to reach these goal in the 
                         two problems. The trials of solving a problem before knowing it 
                         completely creates a high risk of a wrong problem solving. The 
                         Pugh Matrix associated with TRIZ helps ones to solve simpler 
                         contradictions at the beginning of the process, making it easier 
                         to know the more wide problem before starting the solution of the 
                         complete problem and the AHP selection procedure.",
            committee = "Milani, Paulo Gi{\'a}como (presidente) and Bambace, Lu{\'{\i}}s 
                         Ant{\^o}nio Waack (orientador) and Fonseca, El{\'o}i",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Proposed use of heuristics and innovation methods in location 
                         systems design, based on satellite tecnology",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "307",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3KFSSCP",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3KFSSCP",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "30 nov. 2020"
}


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