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@MastersThesis{Dória:2015:CaDiFl,
               author = "D{\'o}ria, Vinicius Etchebeur Medeiros",
                title = "Sensoriamento remoto de luzes noturnas para estimativas 
                         populacionais em escalas regional e local: os casos do Distrito 
                         Florestal Sustent{\'a}vel da BR-163 (PA) e da Regi{\~a}o 
                         Metropolitana de S{\~a}o Paulo",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2015",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2015-11-30",
             keywords = "luzes noturnas, OLS, VIIRS, estimativa de popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         an{\'a}lise espacial, nighttime light, population estimates, 
                         spatial analysis.",
             abstract = "O processo de urbaniza{\c{c}}{\~a}o na Amaz{\^o}nia 
                         contempor{\^a}nea se expressa n{\~a}o somente nas cidades e 
                         vilas estabelecidas e estruturadas, mas tamb{\'e}m em outras 
                         formas de organiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o do espa{\c{c}}o decorrentes de 
                         atividades humanas. Por sua vez, Regi{\~o}es Metropolitanas 
                         experimentam variados processos locais de expans{\~a}o urbana, 
                         com ocupa{\c{c}}{\~o}es que ocorrem horizontal e verticalmente. 
                         Dados de sensoriamento remoto e t{\'e}cnicas de geoprocessamento 
                         t{\^e}m sido utilizados para descrever e entender processos de 
                         urbaniza{\c{c}}{\~a}o e ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o do territ{\'o}rio 
                         e, mais recentemente, para auxiliar na caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         da distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial da popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         nestes territ{\'o}rios urbanizados e na estimativa do volume 
                         populacional. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a 
                         contribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o de imagens mosaico de luzes noturnas do 
                         \emph{Operational Linescan System} (OLS) e do \emph{Visible 
                         Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite} (VIIRS) para estimativas de 
                         popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o, estudando as {\'a}reas do Distrito 
                         Florestal Sustent{\'a}vel da BR163 (DFS-BR163) na Amaz{\^o}nia 
                         Paraense, e a Regi{\~a}o Metropolitana de S{\~a}o Paulo (RMSP). 
                         Dados de luzes noturnas e dados demogr{\'a}ficos foram 
                         sistematizados para inferir o quantitativo populacional e a 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o da popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o em escalas 
                         regional e local. Realizou-se inicialmente a 
                         intercalibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o das imagens mosaico de luzes do OLS e 
                         o refinamento da imagem mosaico de luzes do VIIRS. Para verificar 
                         a utilidade da s{\'e}rie temporal dos mosaicos de luzes noturnas 
                         em estimativas de popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o, a t{\'e}cnica de 
                         regress{\~a}o linear foi adotada para o DFS-BR163, na 
                         an{\'a}lise de imagens mosaico OLS de 2000, 2007 e 2010. A 
                         Regress{\~a}o Geograficamente Ponderada (GWR) foi aplicada para 
                         imagem mosaico VIIRS 2012 em escala local e intraurbana na RMSP. 
                         Da an{\'a}lise dos resultados obtidos para a escala do DFS-BR163 
                         pode-se afirmar que: (1) a intercalibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o das imagens 
                         mosaico do OLS deve ser adaptada para as condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         locais para garantir an{\'a}lises consistentes da s{\'e}rie 
                         temporal; (2) o refinamento da imagem mosaico VIIRS {\'e} 
                         essencial para eliminar as luzes n{\~a}o associadas {\`a} 
                         presen{\c{c}}a de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o humana; (3) a capacidade 
                         do sensor VIIRS em identificar e individualizar {\'a}reas de 
                         diferentes intensidades de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o humana indica o 
                         potencial destas imagens para estudos de distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         espacial da popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o; (4) os dados indicaram 
                         regress{\~o}es com fun{\c{c}}{\~o}es lineares, para os mosaicos 
                         do OLS, e exponencial, para o mosaico do VIIRS, sendo que de 67\% 
                         a 80\% da variabilidade observada nos quantitativos populacionais 
                         p{\^o}de ser explicada pelas imagens de luzes noturnas, os erros 
                         das estimativas s{\~a}o explicados por fatores locais das 
                         {\'a}reas iluminadas e as estimativas do VIIRS apresentaram erros 
                         significativamente menores do que as do OLS. Para a RMSP, 
                         constatou-se que a GWR apresentou estimativas populacionais 
                         satisfat{\'o}rias, com erro geral de 5\% em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         {\`a} popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o observada, e os coeficientes da GWR 
                         mostraram-se associados a diferentes padr{\~o}es de 
                         ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o urbana na RMSP. Por fim, este trabalho indica 
                         o potencial do uso de dados de luzes noturnas do OLS e do VIIRS 
                         para estimativas de popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o nas escalas regional e 
                         local, podendo auxiliar os modelos de distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o e 
                         de estimativa anual da popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o. ABSTRACT: The 
                         contemporary urbanization process in the Amazon region is 
                         expressed not only by structured cities and established villages, 
                         but also by other spatial forms of territory occupation generated 
                         by human activities. On the other hand, Metropolitan Regions 
                         experience various local urban growing processes that occur 
                         horizontally and vertically. Remote sensing data and 
                         geoinformation techniques have been used to describe and 
                         understand urbanization and colonization processes, and, 
                         particularly in recent years, they have been used to assist on the 
                         characterization of spatial population distribution in these 
                         urbanized areas and on population estimates. This work aims to 
                         identify the contribution of nighttime lights images from 
                         Operational Linescan System (OLS) and Visible Infrared Imaging 
                         Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) for population estimates in the 
                         BR163-Sustainable Forest District (DFS-BR163), in the Brazilian 
                         Amazon, and the S{\~a}o Paulo Metropolitan Region (RMSP). 
                         Nighttime lights images and demographic data were organized to 
                         infer population counts and distribution, considering both 
                         regional and local scales. First, intercalibraton of OLS nighttime 
                         lights mosaic images and refinement of VIIRS nighttime lights 
                         mosaic image to remove noise and lights from ephemeral events were 
                         carried out. Then, a linear regression model explored the 
                         relationships between OLS nighttime lights mosaic images and 
                         population estimates in DFS-BR163, in 2000, 2007 and 2010. At 
                         local and intraurban scale, Geographically Weighted Regression 
                         (GWR) was used to study VIIRS 2012 mosaic image and population 
                         distribution in the RMSP. The results from DFS-BR163 scale suggest 
                         that: (1) the OLS mosaic images intercalibration has to be adapted 
                         to the local conditions to guarantee consistent analysis of the 
                         time series; (2) the refinement of VIIRS nighttime lights mosaic 
                         image is essential to eliminate ephemeral sources and noises; (3) 
                         the VIIRS sensibility to identify and individualize human 
                         settlements of different intensities of human occupation 
                         highlights the potential of VIIRS images for spatial population 
                         distribution studies; (4) population estimates presented linear 
                         relationship for OLS mosaic images regressions and exponential 
                         relationship for VIIRS. Also, 67\% to 80\% of the population 
                         variability could be explained by nighttime lights images; the 
                         estimate errors were related to local characteristics of lit 
                         areas; and VIIRS estimate errors were substantially lower than OLS 
                         s. For the RMSP, GWR presented satisfactory estimates, with 
                         general error of 5\% for the observed population data, and the 
                         GWR coefficients were related to different urban occupation 
                         patterns in the RMSP. Lastly, this work indicates the potential of 
                         OLS and VIIRS nighttime lights data for population estimates at 
                         both regional and local scales, suggesting that these images could 
                         also be used as ancillary data for spatial distribution models and 
                         annual population estimates.",
            committee = "Monteiro, Ant{\^o}nio Miguel Vieira (presidente/orientador) and 
                         Kampel, Silvana Amaral (orientadora) and Almeida, Cl{\'a}udia 
                         Maria de and Novo, Evlyn M{\'a}rcia Le{\~a}o de Moraes and 
                         Bueno, Maria do Carmo Dias",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Nighttime light images for population estimates at regional and 
                         local scales: the cases of the Sustainable Forest District of 
                         BR-163 (PA) and the S{\~a}o Paulo Metropolitan Region",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "131",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3KLCMC5",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3KLCMC5",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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