author = "Andreae, M. O. and Acevedo, O. C. and Araujo, A. and Artaxo, P. 
                         and Barbosa, C. G. G. and Barbosa, H. M. J. and Brito, J. and 
                         Carbone, S. and Chi, X. and Cintra, B. B. L. and Silva, N. F. and 
                         Dias, N. L. and Dias, C. Q. and Ditas, F. and Ditz, R. and Godoi, 
                         A. F. L. and Godoi, R. H. M. and Heimann, M. and Hoffmann, T. and 
                         Kesselmeier, J. and Konemann, T. and Kruger, M. L. and Lavric, J. 
                         V. and Manzi, A. O. and Lopes, A. P. and Martins, D. L. and 
                         Mikhailov, E. F. and Moran-Zuloaga, D. and Nelson, B. W. and 
                         Nolscher, A. C. and Nogueira, D. S. and Piedade, M. T. F. and 
                         Pohlker, C. and Poschl, U. and Quesada, C. A. and Rizzo, L. V. and 
                         Ro, C. U. and Ruckteschler, N. and S{\'a}, Leonardo Deane de 
                         Abreu and Sa, M. D. and Sa, M. de Oliveira and Sales, C. B. and 
                         Santos, R. M. N. and Saturno, J. and Schongart, J. and Sorgel, M. 
                         and Souza, C. M. and Souza, R. A. F. and Su, H. and Targhetta, N. 
                         and Tota, J. and Trebs, I. and Trumbore, S. and van Eijck, A. and 
                         Walter, D. and Wang, Z. and Weber, B. and Williams, J. and 
                         Winderlich, J. and Wittmann, F. and Wolff, S. and Yanez-Serrano, 
                         A. M.",
          affiliation = "{} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} 
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                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot 
                         measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and 
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "15",
               number = "18",
                pages = "10723--10776",
             abstract = "The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, 
                         climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It has 
                         already been changed significantly by human activities, and more 
                         pervasive change is expected to occur in the coming decades. It is 
                         therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that 
                         provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, 
                         and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming 
                         decades to monitor change in the Amazon region, as human 
                         perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower 
                         Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest 
                         region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the 
                         city of Manaus. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site 
                         since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. 
                         An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been 
                         conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Measurements 
                         of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were 
                         initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over 
                         the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological 
                         measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, 
                         water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature 
                         profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A 
                         tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of 
                         temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic 
                         covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring 
                         of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at five to 
                         eight different heights, complemented by a variety of additional 
                         species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, 
                         and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical 
                         measurements are being made above the canopy as well as in the 
                         canopy space. They include aerosol light scattering and 
                         absorption, fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, 
                         chemical composition, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) 
                         concentrations, and hygroscopicity. In this paper, we discuss the 
                         scientific context of the ATTO observatory and present an overview 
                         of results from ecological, meteorological, and chemical pilot 
                         studies at the ATTO site.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-15-10723-2015",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-10723-2015",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "2015_andreae.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"