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@Article{TelesGalBreBalGai:2015:ReMOPh,
               author = "Teles, Thiago Sousa and Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares and 
                         Breunig, F{\'a}bio Marcelo and Balbinot, Rafaelo and Gaida, 
                         William",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         de Santa Maria (USFM)} and {Universidade Federal de Santa Maria 
                         (USFM)} and {Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (USFM)}",
                title = "Relationships between MODIS phenological metrics, topographic 
                         shade, and anomalous temperature patterns in seasonal deciduous 
                         forests of south Brazil",
              journal = "International Journal of Remote Sensing",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "36",
               number = "18",
                pages = "4501--4518",
             abstract = "We investigated the relationships between 11 phenological metrics, 
                         topographic shade, and anomalous temperature patterns detected 
                         using wavelet analysis in seasonal deciduous forests of south 
                         Brazil. To obtain the metrics, we applied the TIMESAT algorithm to 
                         the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from Moderate Resolution 
                         Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Terra. MODIS acquires data from 
                         the study area under a large seasonal amplitude in the solar 
                         zenith angle (SZA). We evaluated the effect of topography on 
                         phenological metrics by correlating the metrics with shaded relief 
                         values. To analyse the inter-annual phenological metric variations 
                         with anomalous and regular temperature patterns, we calculated 
                         standard anomalies for each metric. Finally, we established 
                         relationships between the metrics and the minimum, maximum, and 
                         mean temperatures from growing seasons that spanned over 10 
                         seasonal cycles between 2002 and 2012. The correlation results 
                         with shaded relief showed that the left (LD) and right derivative 
                         (RD), small integral (SInt), seasonal amplitude (SA), base level 
                         (BL), and maximum VI value (MV) were sensitive to topographic 
                         effects. The seasonal cycles with the highest temperatures in the 
                         growing season (2006/2007 and 2009/2010) exhibited a delay at the 
                         end of the cycle and a higher interval of duration and 
                         productivity, which was indicated by the positive standard 
                         anomalies for end of season (EOS), length of season (LOS), large 
                         integral (LInt), and SInt. We observed a different result for the 
                         lowest temperature cycle (2003/2004). The means for these metrics 
                         in anomalous seasons differed significantly from the metrics of 
                         other regular cycles at the 0.05 significance level using paired 
                         t-tests. Statistically significant correlations were observed 
                         between the metrics and minimum and mean temperature values of the 
                         10 seasonal cycles.",
                  doi = "10.1080/01431161.2015.1084437",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2015.1084437",
                 issn = "0143-1161",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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