author = "Souza, Carlos Alexandre Wuensche de",
                title = "Fundamental aspects of coronal mass ejections",
            booktitle = "Handbook of cosmic hazards and planetary defense",
            publisher = "Springer International",
                 year = "2015",
               editor = "Pelton, Joseph N. and Allahdadi, Firooz",
                pages = "99--116",
             keywords = "Advanced composition explorer (ACE), CACTus (computer aided CME 
                         tracking), Corona, Coronagraph, Coronal mass ejection (CME), 
                         Electromagnetic pulse (EMP), Eleven-year solar max/solar minimum 
                         cycle, Global geospace science (GGS) WIND satellite, Helioscope, 
                         Heliosphere, Large angle and spectrometric coronagraph experiment 
                         (LASCO), Magnetosphere, Photosphere, SMM, Solar, Solar and 
                         heliospheric observatory (SOHO), Solar dynamics observatory (SDO), 
                         Solar maximum mission (SMM) satellite, Solar system, Solar 
                         terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO), Sun earth connection 
                         coronal and heliospheric investigation (SECCHI), Transition region 
                         and coronal explorer (TRACE) satellite.",
             abstract = "The most violent frequently reoccurring events in the solar system 
                         are coronal mass ejections. During a high energy cycle of the Sun, 
                         or solar max, these can happen as often as six times a day. If the 
                         most extreme of these events are focused so theydirectlyimpact 
                         Earth, the force of impact can be the equivalent of a huge number 
                         of nuclear bombs that can generate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) 
                         with devastating effect. Such a pulse could cripplethe worlds 
                         electrical grids and knock out most satellites in orbit. This 
                         chapter describes the so-called CME phenomenon and current 
                         understandingof why and how they occur. The finalelement of the 
                         chapter discusses the Earths naturally occurring protective 
                         systems that minimize the impactof these otherwise deadly 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                  doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-03952-7_7",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03952-7_7",
                 isbn = "{978-331903952-7;978-331903951-0}",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "coronal mass ejection - Springer_Wuensche2015.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"