author = "Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University 
                         of Toulouse}",
                title = "Effect of turbulence parameterization on assessment of cloud 
              journal = "Monthly Weather Review",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "143",
               number = "8",
                pages = "3246--3263",
             keywords = "Convection, Turbulence, Cloud resolving models.",
             abstract = "This study evaluates the cloud and rain cell organization in space 
                         and time as forecasted by a cloud-resolving model. The forecast 
                         fields, mainly describing mesoscale convective complexes and cold 
                         fronts, were utilized to generate synthetic satellite and radar 
                         images for comparison with Meteosat Second Generation and S-band 
                         radar observations. The comparison was made using a tracking 
                         technique that computed the size and lifetime of cloud and rain 
                         distributions and provided histograms of radiative quantities and 
                         cloud-top height. The tracking technique was innovatively applied 
                         to test the sensitivity of forecasts to the turbulence 
                         parameterization. The simulations with 1D turbulence produced too 
                         many small cloud systems and rain cells with a shorter lifetime 
                         than observed. The 3D turbulence simulations yielded size and 
                         lifetime distributions more consistent with the observations. As 
                         shown for a case study, 3D turbulence yielded longer mixing 
                         length, larger entrainment, and stronger turbulence kinetic energy 
                         inside clouds than 1D turbulence. The simulation with 3D 
                         turbulence had the best scores in high clouds. These features 
                         suggest that 1D turbulence did not produce enough entrainment, 
                         allowing the formation of more small cloud and rain cells than 
                         observed. Further tests were performed on the sensitivity to the 
                         mixing length with 3D turbulence. Cloud organization was very 
                         sensitive to in-cloud mixing length and the use of a very small 
                         value increased the number of small cells, much more than the 
                         simulations with 1D turbulence. With a larger in-cloud mixing 
                         length, the total number of cells, mainly the small ones, was 
                         strongly reduced.",
                  doi = "10.1175/MWR-D-14-00393.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-14-00393.1",
                 issn = "0027-0644",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"