author = "Vogt, Nathan David and Pinedo-Vasquez, M. and Brond{\'{\i}}zio, 
                         E. S. and Almeida, O. and Rivero, S.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Center for 
                         International Forestry Research (CIFOR)} and {Indiana University} 
                         and {Universidade Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Par{\'a} (UFPA)}",
                title = "Forest transitions in mosaic landscapes: smallholder's flexibility 
                         in land-resource use decisions and livelihood strategies from 
                         World War II to the present in the Amazon estuary",
              journal = "Society and Natural Resources",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "28",
               number = "10",
                pages = "1043--1058",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "adaptation, Amazon estuary, forest transitions, land use change, 
                         resilience, social–ecological systems, sustainability.",
             abstract = "The question of how smallholders of the Amazon estuary, locally 
                         known as cabolcos, have adapted their land use systems to produce 
                         resources during booms and busts is analyzed in this article. We 
                         draw upon more than 50 years of census data and more than 30 years 
                         of remotely sensed land-cover data to reconstruct these dynamics 
                         from World War II to the present. We found that smallholders are 
                         highly flexible in their land use decisions and livelihood 
                         strategies and that such flexibility has helped them to adapt 
                         their land-use systems to produce resources in demand during 
                         market booms and conserve forests. Smallholder mosaic landscapes 
                         contain forest fragments that enhance socioecological resilience 
                         to floods and other events produced by changes in the local 
                         hydro-climatic regimes due to sea-level rise and other 
                         climate-related changes. We argue that flexibility is a tool to 
                         reduce livelihood vulnerability by facilitating adaptation to 
                         global market and climate driven changes over the long term.",
                  doi = "10.1080/08941920.2015.1014603",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2015.1014603",
                 issn = "0894-1920 and 1521-0723",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "16 jan. 2021"