author = "Oliveira, Fernando Pereira de and Oyama, Marcos Daisuke",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         de Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)}",
                title = "Antecedent atmospheric conditions related to squall-line 
                         initiation over the northern coast of Brazil in July",
              journal = "Weather and Forecasting",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "30",
               number = "5",
                pages = "1254--1264",
             keywords = "Coastlines, South America, Squall lines.",
             abstract = "The antecedent atmospheric conditions at midmorning (1200 UTC or 
                         0900 LST) related to subsequent squall-line (SL) initiation in the 
                         late afternoon or early evening over the northern coast of Brazil 
                         (NCB) were obtained for a specific month (July) when the SL 
                         initiation is independent of the strong synoptic forcing related 
                         to the intertropical convergence zone. The cases of SL and sparse 
                         deep convection in the late afternoon or early evening over the 
                         NCB were identified both objectively and subjectively, and grouped 
                         into either the SL category (SLC) or the no-convection category 
                         (NOC). For the central area of the NCB, the vertical profiles at 
                         midmorning for SLC and NOC, computed from radiosonde and 
                         ERA-Interim data spanning 9 years (2004-12), were compared. By 
                         focusing on the significant differences for both datasets, it was 
                         found that two midmorning conditions are favorable to SL 
                         initiation in July: a moister layer between 850 and 350 hPa, and a 
                         northeasterly flow at 350 hPa. These regional conditions are part 
                         of a larger-scale pattern: moister (drier) conditions over the 
                         whole NCB (southeastern South America) at 700 hPa and more intense 
                         anticyclonic circulation over the Atlantic Ocean close to 
                         northeastern Brazil at 350 hPa. The paper's findings have the 
                         potential to aid weather forecasting activities, such as those 
                         focused on the prediction of SL-related precipitation 6-12 h 
                  doi = "10.1175/WAF-D-14-00120.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-14-00120.1",
                 issn = "0882-8156",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"