author = "Escobar, R. A. and Cort{\'e}s, C. and Pino, A. and Salgado, M. 
                         and Pereira, Enio Bueno and Martins, Fernando Ramos and Boland, J. 
                         and Cardemil, J. M.",
          affiliation = "{Pontificia Universidad Cat{\'o}lica de Chile} and {Fraunhofer 
                         Chile Research} and {Fraunhofer Chile Research} and {Fraunhofer 
                         Chile Research} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {University of Southern Australia} and {Universidad Diego 
                title = "Estimating the potential for solar energy utilization in Chile by 
                         satellite-derived data and ground station measurements",
              journal = "Solar Energy",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "121",
                pages = "139--151",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Chile, Cloud cover estimation, Ground measurements, Satellite 
                         estimation, Solar resource assessment.",
             abstract = "The progress in solar energy resource assessment for Chile is 
                         reported, including measurements from a ground station network 
                         spanning more than three years of data, satellite estimations from 
                         the recently developed Chile-SR model including three full years 
                         of data, and simulations that evaluate the potential for solar 
                         thermal, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) 
                         utilization.The satellite estimation model adapts the Brasil-SR 
                         methodology with the combined use of visible and infrared (IR) 
                         satellite images, an enhanced treatment for altitude-corrected 
                         meteorological variables and an effective cloud cover computations 
                         that allows the estimation of the global horizontal and diffuse 
                         horizontal irradiation on an hourly basis. Direct normal 
                         irradiation (DNI) is computed from the direct horizontal 
                         irradiation by applying the Boland-Ridley-Laurent (BRL) model of 
                         diffuse fraction and proper solar geometry corrections. Comparison 
                         of the satellite-derived data with the ground station data shows 
                         good agreement and low error levels thus served for model 
                         validation. The results indicate that Chile is endowed with one of 
                         the highest levels of solar resource in the world in terms of 
                         annual irradiation for large portions of its territory. There is a 
                         small decrease in yearly levels of GHI and DNI with latitude that 
                         in practice indicate that most of the country shares exceptional 
                         conditions for solar energy. However, coastal regions have a large 
                         decrease in both GHI and DNI due to the persistence of seasonal 
                         cloud covers with daily cycles.The use of irradiation data from 
                         the Chile-SR model for system simulation indicates that solar 
                         fractions over 80% are achievable for residential-sized solar 
                         thermal systems in most of the country, with PV systems yielding 
                         between 4.5 and 8. kW. h/kWpv, and CSP annual yields of up to 240. 
                         GW. h/year for a 50. MW parabolic trough plant. These results 
                         indicate that the country has the potential for ample utilization 
                         of solar energy conversion technologies in most of its territory 
                         when considering annual GHI and DNI, suitable terrain availability 
                         and energy (electricity and heat) demand from industrial, 
                         commercial and residential activities.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.solener.2015.08.034",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.08.034",
                 issn = "0038-092X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "2015_escobar.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"