author = "Barbosa, Cleiton and Alves, Livia Ribeiro and Caraballo, Ramon and 
                         Hartmann, Gelvam A. and Papa, Andres R. R. and Pirjola, Risto J.",
          affiliation = "{Observat{\'o}rio Nacional (ON)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Universidad de la Rep{\'u}blica, 
                         Facultad de Ciencias (UDELAR) and {Observat{\'o}rio Nacional 
                         (ON)} and {Observat{\'o}rio Nacional (ON)} and {Finnish 
                         Meteorological Institute}",
                title = "Analysis of geomagnetically induced currents at a low-latitude 
                         region over the solar cycles 23 and 24: comparison between 
                         measurements and calculations",
              journal = "Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate",
                 year = "2015",
               volume = "5",
               number = "A35",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC), Hazard, Space weather, 
                         Non-linear phenomena, Geomagnetism.",
             abstract = "Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) are a space weather effect, 
                         which affects ground-based technological structures at all 
                         latitudes on the Earth's surface. GIC occurrence and amplitudes 
                         have been monitored in power grids located at high and middle 
                         latitudes since 1970s and 1980s, respectively. This monitoring 
                         provides information about the GIC intensity and the frequency of 
                         occurrence during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, we 
                         investigate GIC occurrence in a power network at low latitudes (in 
                         the central Brazilian region) during the solar cycles 23 and 24. 
                         Calculated and measured GIC data are compared for the most intense 
                         geomagnetic storms (i.e. -50 < Dst < -50 nT) of the solar cycle 
                         24. The results obtained from this comparison show a good 
                         agreement. The success of the model employed for the calculation 
                         of GIC leads to the possibility of determining GIC for events 
                         during the solar cycle 23 as well. Calculated GIC in one 
                         transformer reached ca. 30 A during the {"}Halloween storm{"} in 
                         2003 whilst most frequent intensities lie below 10 A. The 
                         normalized inverse cumulative frequency for GIC data was 
                         calculated for the solar cycle 23 in order to perform a 
                         statistical analysis. It was found that a q-exponential Tsallis 
                         distribution fits the calculated GIC frequency distribution for 
                         more than 99% of the data. This analysis provides an overview of 
                         the long-term GIC monitoring at low latitudes and suggests new 
                         insight into critical phenomena involved in the GIC generation.",
                  doi = "10.1051/swsc/2015036",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2015036",
                 issn = "2115-7251",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "barbosa.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"