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@Article{GerkenWCFSMACSFJMSVCSTT:2016:DoTrOz,
               author = "Gerken, Tobias and Wei, Dandan and Chase, Randy J. and Fuentes, 
                         Jose D. and Schumacher, Courtney and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo 
                         and Andreoli, Rita V. and Chamecki, Marcelo and Souza, Rodrigo A. 
                         Ferreira de and Freire, Livia S. and Jardine, Angela B. and Manzi, 
                         Antonio Ocimar and Santos, Rosa M. Nascimento dos and Von Randow, 
                         Celso and Costa, Patr{\'{\i}}cia dos Santos and Stoy, Paul C. 
                         and Tota, Julio and Trowbridge, Amy M.",
          affiliation = "{The Pennsylvania State University} and {The Pennsylvania State 
                         University} and {The College at Brockport State University of New 
                         York} and {The Pennsylvania State University} and {Texas A\&M 
                         University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas} and {The Pennsylvania 
                         State University} and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas} and 
                         {The Pennsylvania State University} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and {Universidade do Estado do 
                         Amazonas} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Universidade do Estado do Amazonas} and {Montana State 
                         University} and {Universidade Federal do Oeste do Par{\'a}} and 
                         {Montana State University}",
                title = "Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for 
                         atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest",
              journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "124",
               number = "part A",
                pages = "64--76",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "Isoprene, Monoterpenes, Air chemistry, Convection, Mesoscale 
                         convective storms.",
             abstract = "From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were 
                         investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central 
                         Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum 
                         hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a 
                         volume basis) during the JuneSeptember dry months and 15 ppbv 
                         during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv 
                         in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air 
                         pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air 
                         parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly 
                         enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 
                         ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple 
                         convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 
                         increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the 
                         vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of 
                         downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained 
                         enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced 
                         chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and 
                         monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are 
                         modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 
                          106\ radicals\ cm\−3s\−1. Therefore, 
                         one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of 
                         convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the 
                         surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the 
                         lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.014",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.014",
                 issn = "1352-2310",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "gerken.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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