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@Article{AlexandridisChBiAlHaAnAr:2016:SpTeDi,
               author = "Alexandridis, Thomas K. and Cherif, Ines and Bilas, George and 
                         Almeida, Waldenio Gambi de and Hartanto, Isnaeni M. and van Andel, 
                         Schalk Jan and Araujo, Antonio",
          affiliation = "{Aristotle University of Thessaloniki} and {Aristotle University 
                         of Thessaloniki} and {Aristotle University of Thessaloniki} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {UNESCO-IHE 
                         Institute for Water Education} and {UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water 
                         Education} and {GMVIS SKYSOFT S.A.}",
                title = "Spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture at the 
                         catchment scale using remotely-sensed energy fluxes",
              journal = "Water",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "8",
               number = "32",
             keywords = "soil water content, river basin, remote sensing, thermal infrared, 
                         MODIS.",
             abstract = "Despite playing a critical role in the division of precipitation 
                         between runoff and infiltration, soil moisture (SM) is difficult 
                         to estimate at the catchment scale and at frequent time steps, as 
                         is required by many hydrological, erosion and flood simulation 
                         models. In this work, an integrated methodology is described to 
                         estimate SM at the root zone, based on the remotely-sensed 
                         evaporative fraction (L) and ancillary information on soil and 
                         meteorology. A time series of Terra MODIS satellite images was 
                         used to estimate SM maps with an eight-day time step at a 250-m 
                         spatial resolution for three diverse catchments in Europe. The 
                         study of the resulting SM maps shows that their spatial 
                         variability follows the pattern of land cover types and the main 
                         geomorphological features of the catchment, and their temporal 
                         pattern follows the distribution of rain events, with the 
                         exception of irrigated land. Field surveys provided in situ 
                         measurements to validate the SM maps accuracy, which proved to be 
                         variable according to site and season. In addition, several 
                         factors were analyzed in order to explain the variation in the 
                         accuracy, and it was shown that the land cover type, the soil 
                         texture class, the temporal difference between the datasets 
                         acquisition and the presence of rain events during the 
                         measurements played a significant role, rather than the often 
                         referred to scale difference between in situ and satellite 
                         observations. Therefore, the proposed methodology can be used 
                         operationally to estimate SM maps at the catchment scale, with a 
                         250-m spatial resolution and an eight-day time step.",
                  doi = "10.3390/w8010032",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w8010032",
                 issn = "2073-4441",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "water-08-00032.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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