author = "Kherani, Esfhan Alam and Rolland, L. and Lognonne, P. and Sladen, 
                         A. and Klausner, Virg{\'{\i}}nia and Paula, Eurico Rodrigues 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {} and {} 
                         and {} and {} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                title = "Traveling ionospheric disturbances propagating ahead of the 
                         Tohoku-Oki tsunami: a case study",
              journal = "Geophysical Journal International",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "204",
               number = "2",
                pages = "1148--1158",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "Acoustic-gravity waves, Ionosphere/atmosphere interactions, 
                         Tsunamis, Early warning.",
             abstract = "We document two kinds of traveling ionospheric disturbances, 
                         namely, CTIDs (Co-tsunami-Traveling-Ionospheric-disturbances) and 
                         ATIDs (Ahead-of-Tsunami-Traveling-Ionospheric-disturbances) 
                         related to the Tohoku-Oki tsunami of 2011 March 11. They are 
                         referred to the disturbances that remain behind and ahead of the 
                         principal tsunami wave front, respectively. We first note their 
                         presence in a numerical experiment performed using a simulation 
                         code coupling the tsunami, atmosphere and ionosphere. This code 
                         uses the tsunami wavefield as an input and simulates 
                         acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and TIDs, in the 
                         form of total electron content (TEC) disturbance, in the 
                         ionosphere. The simulated TEC reveals the excitation of CTIDs (at 
                         about 2 TECU) and ATIDs (at about 1 TECU), representing up to 5 
                         per cent disturbance over the ambient electron density, and they 
                         arise from the dissipation of AGWs in the thermosphere. A novel 
                         outcome is that during the tsunami passage between similar to 6 
                         degrees and 12 degrees of epicentral distance, strong ATIDs arrive 
                         similar to 20-60 min ahead of the tsunami wave front covering 
                         similar to 3 degrees-10 degrees of distance from the tsunami 
                         location. Simulation results are compared with the far-field 
                         observations using GNSS satellites and confirm that ATIDs are the 
                         first detected TEC maximum, occurring 20-60 min ahead of the 
                         tsunami arrival. Our simulation also confirms the presence of 
                         largest TEC maximum representing CTIDs, 10-20 min after the first 
                         tsunami wave. ATIDs reported in this study have characteristics 
                         that can be potentially used for the early warning of the 
                  doi = "10.1093/gji/ggv500",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggv500",
                 issn = "0956-540X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "1_kherani_traveling.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "17 jan. 2021"