author = "Souza, Diego Oliveira de and Alval{\'a}, Regina C{\'e}lia dos 
                         Santos and Nascimento, Mar{\'{\i}}lia Guedes do",
          affiliation = "{} and {} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Urbanization effects on the microclimate of Manaus: A modeling 
              journal = "Atmospheric Research",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "167",
                pages = "237--248",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "Urbanization, Urban heat island, Amazon, Atmospheric modeling.",
             abstract = "Activities associated with land use and land cover changes and 
                         urbanization induce local impacts, such as changes in atmospheric 
                         composition in water and energy balances and changes in the 
                         ecosystem. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the 
                         possible relationship between urban growth and local and regional 
                         changes. In the last 30 years, the population of Manaus grew by 
                         over 500%, with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in 2010. 
                         Trying to understand the effects of the urban growth of the city 
                         of Manaus on its microclimate and atmospheric processes, the 
                         present study aims to evaluate the possible physical mechanisms 
                         related to the urbanization process observed through a study of 
                         atmospheric modeling. The results allowed to assess that the 
                         presence of the urban area significantly modifies the surface 
                         energy balance (SEB), generating a thermal gradient between the 
                         city and the surrounding regions, favoring the formation and 
                         intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The results 
                         indicated that with urban growth there is an increase in 
                         temperature, decrease in the atmospheric water content and 
                         significant changes in the flow at low levels, mainly in the 
                         breeze circulations, with significant changes observed in the 
                         structure and characteristic of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) 
                         over the study area. A positive correlation between the increase 
                         of the urban area and increased rainfall was also observed. From 
                         the results, it was possible to observe that there is a direct 
                         relationship between urban growth and changes in the local 
                         microclimate in Manaus.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.08.016",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.08.016",
                 issn = "0169-8095",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "souza_urbanization.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"