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@MastersThesis{Victorino:2016:AnDePi,
               author = "Victorino, Helo{\'{\i}}sa da Silva",
                title = "An{\'a}lise de deforma{\c{c}}{\~a}o em pilhas de 
                         disposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o de est{\'e}ril (NWI, W e SIV) no complexo 
                         minerador de Caraj{\'a}s com uso de dados stripmap do 
                         sat{\'e}lite TerraSAR- X",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2016",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2016-03-02",
             keywords = "pilha de disposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o de est{\'e}ril, interferometria 
                         diferencial SAR, prov{\'{\i}}ncia mineral de Caraj{\'a}s, waste 
                         pile, differential interferometry SAR, intensity tracking, 
                         Caraj{\'a}s mineral province.",
             abstract = "A Prov{\'{\i}}ncia Mineral de Caraj{\'a}s (PMC) det{\'e}m a 
                         maior mina de ferro a c{\'e}u aberto do mundo e a melhor 
                         qualidade de min{\'e}rio de ferro, bem como grandes 
                         dep{\'o}sitos de mangan{\^e}s, cobre, n{\'{\i}}quel e ouro, 
                         sob opera{\c{c}}{\~a}o da Vale S.A. Atualmente cinco minas a 
                         c{\'e}u aberto (N4E, N4W, N5E, N5W e N5S) tem a 
                         produ{\c{c}}{\~a}o anual de milh{\~o}es de toneladas de 
                         min{\'e}rio de ferro. A explora{\c{c}}{\~a}o mineral d{\'a} 
                         origem a dois tipos de res{\'{\i}}duos os est{\'e}reis, 
                         compostos por materiais s{\'o}lidos agregados ao min{\'e}rio e 
                         comumente removidos durante a lavra; e os rejeitos, resultantes do 
                         processo de beneficiamento do min{\'e}rio. Os res{\'{\i}}duos 
                         s{\'o}lidos s{\~a}o os principais respons{\'a}veis pelo impacto 
                         ambiental nas atividades mineradoras. Ap{\'o}s sua 
                         remo{\c{c}}{\~a}o s{\~a}o transportados por caminh{\~o}es e 
                         dispostos sob a forma de pilhas em camadas sucessivas. A principal 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}stica das Pilhas de Disposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         Est{\'e}ril (PDEs) s{\~a}o os recalques (assentamentos) sofridos 
                         durante e ap{\'o}s a opera{\c{c}}{\~a}o, que ocorrem devido 
                         {\`a} reorienta{\c{c}}{\~a}o das part{\'{\i}}culas, 
                         altera{\c{c}}{\~a}o por intemperismo, enfraquecimento dos 
                         contatos entre part{\'{\i}}culas e carreamento de material. A 
                         possibilidade de ocorr{\^e}ncia de acidentes nas PDEs e seus 
                         impactos no setor ambiental requerem ferramentas eficientes para o 
                         planejamento e preven{\c{c}}{\~a}o ou minimiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         eventuais consequ{\^e}ncias negativas. A fim de detectar e 
                         monitorar poss{\'{\i}}veis deforma{\c{c}}{\~o}es superficiais 
                         nas PDEs NWI, W e SIV localizadas na PMC, foram aplicadas duas 
                         abordagens de processamento de imagens de Radar de Abertura 
                         Sint{\'e}tica (SAR): uma consolidada na literatura, com 
                         precis{\~a}o centim{\'e}trica Interferometria Diferencial para 
                         S{\'e}ries Temporais (DInSAR-TS), que utiliza interferogramas 
                         diferenciais para detectar movimentos na superf{\'{\i}}cie em 
                         LoS a partir da informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de fase; e uma mais 
                         recente, com precis{\~a}o m{\'e}trica Intensity Tracking, que 
                         aplica a correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada bidimensional sobre a 
                         imagem amplitude para rastrear altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es na 
                         posi{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos espalhadores na linha de visada do 
                         sat{\'e}lite (Line of Sight LoS) nas dire{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         range e azimute. Foram utilizadas na investiga{\c{c}}{\~a}o 33 
                         imagens TerraSAR-X (TSX-1), adquiridas no modo StripMap, entre 20 
                         de mar{\c{c}}o de 2012 e 20 abril de 2013. Os resultados 
                         mostraram que a abordagem DInSAR-TS apresenta-se adequada para 
                         esta aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o, deixando apenas algumas {\'a}reas sem 
                         monitoramento, que foram em sua totalidade preenchidas pelos 
                         resultados da Intensity Tracking que, apesar de apresentar menor 
                         acur{\'a}cia, proporciona informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         tend{\^e}ncia de comportamento da superf{\'{\i}}cie, 
                         proporcionando ind{\'{\i}}cios para averigua{\c{c}}{\~a}o. 
                         ABSTRACT: The Caraj{\'a}s Mineral Province (CMP) holds to the 
                         largest iron the open sky world and best quality iron ore mine, as 
                         well as large deposits of manganese, copper, nickel and gold, 
                         under operation of Vale S.A. Currently five mines iron ore in the 
                         open (N4E, N4W, N5E, N5W and N5S) have an annual production of 
                         millions of tons. Mineral exploration generates two types of 
                         residues - waste, composed of solid materials aggregated to the 
                         ore and commonly removed during mining; and tailings, resulting 
                         from ore beneficiation process. Solid residues are the main 
                         responsible for the environmental impact of mining activities. 
                         After removed they are transported by trucks and arranged in piles 
                         form in successive layers. The main characteristic of Waste Piles 
                         (WP) is the settlements during and after operation, which occur 
                         due to the reorientation of the particles, change due to 
                         weathering, weakening of contact between particles, and carrying 
                         of material. The possibility of accidents on WP and their impacts 
                         in the environment require efficient tools for planning and 
                         preventing or minimizing any adverse impacts. In order to detect 
                         and monitor potential surface deformations at NWI, W and SIV waste 
                         piles located in CMP, two Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images 
                         processing approaches were applied: a consolidated in literature, 
                         with centimeter accuracy Differential Interferometry for 
                         Time-series (DInSAR-TS), that uses differential interferograms to 
                         detect movements on surface from phase information in Line of 
                         Sight (LoS); and a more recent, with metric precision Intensity 
                         Tracking, that applies the two-dimensional cross-correlation on 
                         the amplitude image to track changes in the position of the 
                         scatterers in LoS in range and azimuth directions. 33 TerraSAR-X 
                         StripMap images covering the period between March 2012 20th and 
                         April 2013 20th were used in the investigation. Results showed 
                         that the approach DInSAR-TS is appropriate for this application, 
                         leaving only some areas without monitoring, which were entirely 
                         filled by the results of Intensity Tracking, despite having lower 
                         accuracy, provides the information of surface behavior trend, 
                         providing evidences for investigation.",
            committee = "Gama, F{\'a}bio Furlan (presidente/orientador) and Paradella, 
                         Waldir Renato (orientador) and Mura, Jos{\'e} Cl{\'a}udio and 
                         Oliveira, Cleber Gonzales de",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Displacement analysis of waste piles (NWI, W and SIV) in 
                         caraj{\'a}s mineral complex using TerraSAR-X stripmap data",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "144",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3LAKPKL",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3LAKPKL",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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