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@MastersThesis{Vedovato:2016:AnEsDe,
               author = "Vedovato, Laura Barbosa",
                title = "An{\'a}lise espa{\c{c}}o-temporal do desacoplamento dos 
                         padr{\~o}es de fogo e desmatamento na Amaz{\^o}nia",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2016",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2016-04-08",
             keywords = "Amaz{\^o}nia, queimadas, fragmenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal, 
                         d{\'e}ficit h{\'{\i}}drico, desmatamento, Amazon, fire, forest 
                         fragmentation, water deficit, deforestation.",
             abstract = "Em meados da {\'u}ltima d{\'e}cada as taxas de desmatamento na 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia Legal entraram em decl{\'{\i}}nio. Diversos 
                         fatores influenciaram este processo, tais como: (1) a 
                         contribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o de interven{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         pol{\'{\i}}ticas, (2) iniciativas de setores privados e (3) 
                         condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de mercado. No entanto, quando comparado 
                         {\`a} ocorr{\^e}ncia de queimadas na regi{\~a}o, identificou-se 
                         um aumento de 59\%, evidenciando um desacoplamento entre esses 
                         processos. O presente trabalho visa entender os principais 
                         mecanismos que promovem este atual desacoplamento observado entre 
                         queimadas e desmatamento na Amaz{\^o}nia brasileira. Para isso, 
                         foram testadas tr{\^e}s hip{\'o}teses n{\~a}o exclusivas que 
                         afirmam que esse padr{\~a}o pode estar associado a (H1) um 
                         aumento das {\'a}reas fragmentadas na floresta Amaz{\^o}nica, 
                         (H2) um aumento da frequ{\^e}ncia de secas na regi{\~a}o e (H3) 
                         aumento de florestas secund{\'a}rias e degradadas na regi{\~a}o. 
                         Para tanto, foi mapeada e quantificada a fragmenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         da floresta Amaz{\^o}nica, e analisada as tend{\^e}ncias 
                         temporais da ocorr{\^e}ncia dos focos de calor, taxas de 
                         desmatamento, classes de fragmenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         degrada{\c{c}}{\~a}o florestal, secundariza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         florestal e frequ{\^e}ncia das secas na Amaz{\^o}nia. Os 
                         resultados da an{\'a}lise de fragmenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         considerando o par{\^a}metro de 120m, para o ano de 2014, 
                         mostraram que 2.956.746 km\$^{2}\$ da Amaz{\^o}nia brasileira 
                         constituem {\'a}reas cont{\'{\i}}nuas (classe Core). Contudo, 
                         56.494km\$^{2}\$ , 119.057km\$^{2}\$, 10.228km\$^{2}\$ e 
                         42.170km\$^{2}\$ encontram-se fragmentados dentro das 
                         respectivas classes: Corredor, Borda, Ilha e 
                         Perfura{\c{c}}{\~a}o. O resultado da an{\'a}lise de 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o por pixel para a s{\'e}rie temporal de 
                         2003 a 2014 indicou que a classe de fragmenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         Corredor de 120m, apresentou a maior quantidade de c{\'e}lulas 
                         significativas positivas (p< 0,1) correspondendo a 23,9\% (844 
                         c{\'e}lulas) de todas as c{\'e}lulas analisadas, seguida pela 
                         classe d{\'e}ficit h{\'{\i}}drico (22\% - 808 c{\'e}lulas) e 
                         pela classe desmatamento (21,7\% - 718 c{\'e}lulas). Conclui-se, 
                         portanto, que a fragmenta{\c{c}}{\~a}o da Amaz{\^o}nia, 
                         especialmente a forma{\c{c}}{\~a}o de Corredores e eventos de 
                         seca podem exacerbar o efeito direto do desmatamento sobre a 
                         incid{\^e}ncia de queimadas em parte da Amaz{\^o}nia brasileira. 
                         O entendimento dessas rela{\c{c}}{\~o}es {\'e} uma etapa 
                         cr{\'{\i}}tica para subsidiar planos de mitiga{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         dos impactos do fogo nesta regi{\~a}o. ABSTRACT: Since the middle 
                         of the last decade, deforestation rates in the Amazon have 
                         declined. This process was due to a number of factors such as: (1) 
                         the contribution of policy interventions, (2) private sector 
                         initiatives and (3) market conditions. However, the occurrence of 
                         fires did not show the same pattern of decline as deforestation 
                         rates, indicating a decoupling between these processes. Therefore, 
                         this study aims to understand the main mechanisms that cause this 
                         current decoupling observed between fires and deforestation in the 
                         Brazilian Amazon. For this, three non-exclusive hypotheses were 
                         tested stating that this pattern may be associated with (H1) an 
                         increase in fragmented areas in the Amazon forest, (H2) an 
                         increase in the frequency of droughts in the region and (H3) an 
                         increase in secondary and degraded forests area in the region. For 
                         testing these hypotheses the fragmentation of the Amazon forest 
                         was mapped and quantified. Temporal trends in fragmentation was 
                         then analyzed and subsequently correlated with the occurrence of 
                         hot spots, rates of deforestation, fragmentation classes, forest 
                         degradation, secondary forest and frequency of droughts in the 
                         Amazon between 2003 and 2014. The results of the fragmentation 
                         analysis considering the distance parameter of 120m showed that in 
                         2014 2.956.746 Km\$^{2}\$ of the Brazilian Amazon encompass 
                         continuous areas (core class). However, 56.494km\$^{2}\$, 
                         119.057km\$^{2}\$, 10.228km\$^{2}\$ and 42.170km\$^{2}\$ 
                         were classified as fragmented within their respective classes: 
                         corridor, edge, isle and perforation. The results of the 
                         pixel-based correlation analysis indicated that the class 
                         identified as fragmentation edge with 120m had the highest amount 
                         of significantly positive cells (p <0.1) corresponding to 23.9\% 
                         (844 cells) of all cells analyzed, followed by the class water 
                         d{\'e}ficit (22\% - 808 cells) and deforestation class (21.7\% 
                         -718 cells). This study demonstrated that fragmentation of the 
                         Amazon, especially the formation of corridors combined with 
                         drought events may exacerbate the direct effect of deforestation 
                         on the incidence of fires in parts of the Brazilian Amazon. 
                         Understanding these relationships is a critical step to support 
                         plans for mitigation of fire impacts in this region.",
            committee = "Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de 
                         (presidente/orientador) and Arai, Eg{\'{\i}}dio (orientador) and 
                         Ponzoni, Fl{\'a}vio Jorge and Kampel, Silvana Amaral and Barlow, 
                         Jos",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Spatio-temporal analysis of the decoupling between fire and 
                         deforestation in the Amazon",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "119",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3LCQ9DB",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3LCQ9DB",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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