author = "Carmenta, Rachel and Blackburn, George Alan and Davies, Gemma and 
                         Sassi, Cl{\'a}udio de and Lima, Andr{\'e} and Parry, Luke and 
                         Tych, Wlodek and Barlow, Jos",
          affiliation = "{University of Lancaster} and {University of Lancaster} and 
                         {University of Lancaster} and {Forests \& Livelihoods} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University 
                         of Lancaster} and {University of Lancaster} and {University of 
                title = "Does the establishment of sustainable use reserves affect fire 
                         management in the humid tropics?",
              journal = "Plos One",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "11",
               number = "2",
                pages = "e0149292",
                month = "Feb.",
             abstract = "Tropical forests are experiencing a growing fire problem driven by 
                         climatic change, agricultural expansion and forest degradation. 
                         Protected areas are an important feature of forest protection 
                         strategies, and sustainable use reserves (SURs) may be reducing 
                         fire prevalence since they promote sustainable livelihoods and 
                         resource management. However, the use of fire in swidden 
                         agriculture, and other forms of land management, may be 
                         undermining the effectiveness of SURs in meeting their 
                         conservation and sustainable development goals. We analyse MODIS 
                         derived hot pixels, TRMM rainfall data, Terra-Class land cover 
                         data, socio-ecological data from the Brazilian agro-census and the 
                         spatial extent of rivers and roads to evaluate whether the 
                         designation of SURs reduces fire occurrence in the Brazilian 
                         Amazon. Specifically, we ask (1) a. Is SUR location (i.e., de 
                         facto) or (1) b. designation (i.e. de jure) the driving factor 
                         affecting performance in terms of the spatial density of fires?, 
                         and (2), Does SUR creation affect fire management (i.e., the 
                         timing of fires in relation to previous rainfall)? We demonstrate 
                         that pre-protection baselines are crucial for understanding 
                         reserve performance. We show that reserve creation had no 
                         discernible impact on fire density, and that fires were less 
                         prevalent in SURs due to their characteristics of sparser human 
                         settlement and remoteness, rather than their status de jure. In 
                         addition, the timing of fires in relation to rainfall, indicative 
                         of local fire management and adherence to environmental law, did 
                         not improve following SUR creation. These results challenge the 
                         notion that SURs promote environmentally sensitive 
                         fire-management, and suggest that SURs in Amazonia will require 
                         special attention if they are to curtail future accidental 
                         wildfires, particularly as plans to expand the road infrastructure 
                         throughout the region are realised. Greater investment to support 
                         improved fire management by farmers living in reserves, in 
                         addition to other fire users, will be necessary to help ameliorate 
                         these threats.",
                  doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0149292",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149292",
                 issn = "1932-6203",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Carmenta_does.PDF",
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"